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Title: D7.1-1.1-36 List and classification of the existing EU and national forest legislation and national policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires /
Language: English
Description: A compilation and classification was made of existing regulations and policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires, both in North African countries and for Europe. Since wildland fire issues are mainly dealt within national forest policies, this analysis has mainly focused on the national scale, although the existence of different multilevel governance structures make it necessary to address the issue on a regional level in decentralized countries. Thus, three types of regulatory texts are identified as relevant for the Integrated Wildland Fire Management: (i) Basic Forest Legislation, (ii) Basic Wildland Fire Legislation, and (iii) Specific Legislation on the Use of Fire. Concerning policy instruments, two planning documents have been considered: National/Regional Forest Programmes and specific plans concerning defence and protection against wildfires. Its typology depends on (i) the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies, and (ii) the responsibility allocation within each national governance structure (situation of decentralization). The compilation and classification of these documents was based on the information obtained from a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission, and on other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The review of existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments in 21 EU countries and three North African countries has identified the following key issues: (1) The existence of a range of definitions related to wildland fire management, with different meanings in different European settings as well as differing legal terminology for these terms. (2) The importance of the structure of national governance. The degree of decentralization will determine where the responsibilities are allocated and how they are developed. Therefore, the structure of national governance will be one of the main factors guiding future assessment of national forest policies. (3) The influence of the European Union in national forest policies through EU regulations dealing with specific aspects of the forest sector or forest-related issues, as a complement to national activities, where necessary. (4) There is a great diversity among the regulatory texts and policy instruments related to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires in European and North African countries, due to the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies and the different wildfire risk in each national/regional context. (5) Few of the analysed countries have a specific wildland fire law or regulation. Most of them deal with wildfires within their Forest Laws, through a specific chapter dedicated to wildfires (Southern countries) or in a general chapter on forest protection (Northern countries). (6) There are some countries that do not yet have a specific policy for wildland fires, but progress on forest policy is noted in all the countries included in the report. (7) The compilation of policy instruments shows that 12 of 17 countries considered in the document have a specific wildland fire plan or strategy; these are often linked to national forest policy. (8) Regulation of the use of fire in Europe, although extensive, has focused almost exclusively on the regulation of activities that involve the use of fire in wildland areas or close to these areas (i.e. fire for recreation, alimentation purposes or traditional rural practices). However, fire use for forest management, wildfire prevention and for wildfire suppression receives little attention in legislation. When addressed, it is usually authorized but not regulated, possibly due to the recent development of these perspectives in the continent.
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Title: Deliverable D.7.1-1-2 Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy instruments concerning integrated wildland fire management in the EU, in European Member States and in North African countries /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are one of the main risks affecting European forests, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Socio-economic changes, some forest management actions and other policy measures outside the forest sector (i.e. environmental and nature protection policies) have generally influenced the flammability of ecosystems and increased the risk of large wildfires. Policy and legislation have great relevance in fire management in order to face the new realities that are bringing about fundamental changes within the forest sector. This document is the second step in the analysis process of the existing European and national legislation and policy instruments with reference to wildland fires. The first step was the compilation and classification of the related documents. This document presents the assessment of the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy outputs in order to consider their contributions to integrated wildland fire management. The assessment is based on the information obtained through a questionnaire sent to the national representatives of the Expert Group on Forest Fires (a group linked to the European Forest Fire Information System, EFFIS, established by the Joint Research Centre, JRC, of the European Commission), national fire technicians and other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The territorial scope covers the European Union including its 27 Member States and a representation of the North African countries through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, not all the EU-countries are included in the present document due to the lack of official information. The scales considered for the analysis are the European Union context and the national level. The assessment of the wildfire related legislation and policy instruments has tried to address, considering not only the sometimes limited information available but also, and most important, the general descriptive and self-complementary tone of the primary material analyzed, the following issues: (1) Are existing legislation and policies adapted to the specific national contexts? (2) Are policies and legislations implemented and enforced correctly? (3) Are national policies iterative and participatory processes? Is the legal framework open to revision and dynamic? (4) Which are the major fire-related issues considered in order to achieve Integrated Wildland Fire Management? (5) Is there effective cross-sectoral coordination among the different organizations working on wildland fires? (6) The responsibility for reducing the likelihood and consequence of wildfires is appropriately shared between the public administration and private land owners/managers. As a result of the analysis of the existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments the following strengths and weakness have been identified: (1) There are shortcomings in national regulations that need to be sorted out in order to provide a useful, self-contained and common wildfire legal framework for the Member States. This statement is especially evident as regards prescribed fire and suppression fire regulations. (2) Even though the European legislation has contributed to homogenize national legal frameworks, there are still important differences among countries. The comprehensiveness and scope of national regulations is above all different if Mediterranean countries (including France and Bulgaria, which share similar problems) are compared with other European countries. (3) Most forestry-related documents hardly ever mention wildfire management. In fact, there are some countries that do not have a specific policy for wildland fires yet, but some progress is to be noticed in all countries as wildfires are becoming a growing problem. (4) The diverse risk severity of wildfires in the national contexts and the different political and administrative systems existing in each country justify to some extent the differing scope of each country's national legal and policy instruments. Besides, the vagueness of the concept of sustainable forest management allows for the introduction of taylored practices in different contexts, let alone the reference to the diverse environmental circumstances in Europe that many that EU documents have incorporated. (5)Lack of an effective coordination among the different units dealing with wildland fires is clearly a weak point. Further, problems of coordination are aggravated by the fact that many countries have federal systems (multilevel governance frequently leads to time-consuming processes and sub-optimal results) or are undergoing decentralization trends. (6) Regarding community-based cooperation, organized groups of local stakeholders are emerging especially in Mediterranean countries. These groups contribute to fire management as a result of instrumental motivation, or self-interest. Furthermore, some common ecological and socio-economical patterns have been recognised at the regional level, which will be used to provide recommendations for the future and to set the basis for a new legislation and policy measures relative to integrated wildland fire management, adapted to each territorial context.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Summary / An innovative approach of integrated wildland fire management regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire: solving the fire paradox
Language: English
Description: Man has always used fire in nature but its misuse can end in catastrophe and, as a Finnish proverb says, "fire is a bad master but a good servant". Contemporary trends of fuel accumulation on the landscape caused by land abandonment are aggravated by efficient fire suppression, with the paradoxical effect of increasing the risk of large and devastating wildfires in the Mediterranean Basin. No matter how sophisticated it is fire fighting technology cannot cope with fire events occurring under extreme weather conditions, as the summers of 2003, 2004 and 2005 have shown. Past European research and practical experience in various countries highlight the need to design fire management and wildfire hazard mitigation policies adapted to the European situation. It is the ambition of FIRE PARADOX to contribute actively to set the bases for a fire management policy that would prevent the current disastrous social, economical and environmental consequences of wildfires in southern Europe.
Date: 20/02/2007
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: COST Action FP0701. Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe /
Language: English
Description: Cost Action FP0701, Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe, is a network of researchers and practitioners working in the field of fire ecology and forest management from all around Europe. The action commenced in May 2008 and will continue for four years. The main objective of this Action is to develop and disseminate scientifically-based decision criteria for post-fire management, applicable from stand-level to landscape-level planning. The short-term expected result is to increase the scientific basis for undertaking appropriate post-fire management practices in Southern Europe; the long-term expected result is to improve the effectiveness in restoring burned areas and reduce fire hazard in European forests and landscapes.
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Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
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Title: EU-FIRE: Innovative optoelectronic and acoustic sensing technologies for large scale forest fire long term monitoring / EU-FIRE
Language: English
Description: The EU-FIRE project has the objective to design a new forest fires monitoring system able to guarantee accurate and continuous surveillance and forecasting, immediate detection of fire beginnings, monitoring of the fire evolution, and timely exchange of information from fire fronts. The EU-FIRE integrated prototype is based on 3 components: a microphones system for volumetric scanning; fibre optic senscors networks for the detection of changes in the parameters associated to fire, such as temperature and gaseous emissions; and a Local Control Unit able to integrate data from acoustic and optoelectronic sensors. The results will lead, in the mid-term, to the provision of improved performance detection systems, and, in the long term, to the establishment of a common European model for forest fire monitoring.
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Title: Design of a frame work for producing and providing earth observation based information services for forest fires management at European and local levels (Control Fire Sat) / Control Fire Sat Project
Language: English
Description: The aim of the CFS Project was the provision of real-time Earth Observation data to be used in forest fire management. A pre-operational warning and information system was developed. CFS delivered four customized products derived from NOAA-AVHRR data: daily fire risk maps; a fire detection and warning system operating during night hours; monitoring of the fire front evolution during a fire event, and a near real-time web delivery system for the previous products. Activities covered the summer seasons of 1998 and 1999 for Greece, Spain and France. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: PiroPinus version 2.0 /
Language: English
Description: PiroPinus is a prescribed burning guide for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands in the form of a spreadsheet, conceived for operational use in the planning and evaluation of hazard reduction burns in natural fuels, i.e. slash from pruning or thinning is not present. It can also be used as a research tool for fire modelling purposes. Potential users are urged to try the guide in other medium- to long-needled pines (P. pinea, P. canariensis, P. radiata, P. nigra, P. halepensis), especially when the understorey is composed of Mediterranean-type species. PiroPinus is a all-in-one user-friendly tool that integrates models based on observed, real-world, fire behaviour and effects. Unlike other available tools, PiroPinus has the ability to: 1. Reflect local stand and fuel conditions in the output; 2. Assess the likelihood of sustained fire spread and quantify marginal burning conditions. Fire modelling systems using properly developed custom fuel models can be used to obtain accurate estimates of fire behaviour. However, such systems perform poorly at the high-end of the moisture content range and are not able to produce site-specific estimates. PiroPinus is composed of several interrelated or stand-alone worksheets for distinct objectives: (1) FUEL. Data entry of basic fuel and stand descriptors to assess fuel load and fire behaviour and effects; (2) RX WIN. Prescription window (general burning conditions); (3) RX DEV. Prescription development, the definition of burning conditions to avoid undesired fire impacts on trees and the forest floor; (4) MOIST. Fuel moisture content, to estimate the moisture contents of surface fine dead fuels and decomposing litter; (5) FIRE. Ignition and fire behaviour, to assess the likelihood of fire spread and quantify fire characteristics; (6) IGN PLAN. Assessment and optimization of area treatment rate; (7) TREES. Fire impact on trees, to assess canopy damage and mortality; (8) FUEL DYN. Fuel dynamics, to estimate fuel consumption and post-burn accumulation; (9) POST-FIRE. Post-burn assessment of fire behaviour and effects; (10) WEATH. Wind speed estimation and Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (for regional planning).
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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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Title: Fire Hazard Mapper (User's manual) / GIS tool to produce Fire Hazard maps (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: Fire Hazard Mapper is a software application, which is going to produce fire hazard maps, using as input data concerning structural (fuel models, topography, climate, etc) and daily factors (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed).
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Title: MFM Calculator (User's manual) / GIS interface to daily assess the meteorological parameters and the drought or moisture content (FMC) index (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: MFM Calculator is a GIS software tool, which is calculating the meteorological and fuel moisture components of the fire risk. The tool uses a a combination of Kriging and the inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods to interpolate values of meteorological parameters (air temperature, daily total precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed) from point sources (meteo stations). Further, the tool calculates a modified version of the Keech-Byram index for Mediterranean conditions and a Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) index over a geographic area
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Title: Fuel Mapper (User's manual) / An easy to use tool to recognize and map fuel models (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: Fuel Mapper is a GIS software application, which is going to produce fuel type maps, using as input land cover/vegetation type information and vegetation height data. The output is a fuel type map classified according to a chosen fuel typology (NFFL or Prometheus).
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Title: Deliverable .5.1-5 Development of a user friendly GIS interface to daily assess the meteorological parameters and the drought or moisture content (FMC) index - User’s manual /
Language: English
Description: D5.1-5 is a user manual for a GIS tool to calculate the drought index and fuel moisture content. For the calculation of the drought index (Modified KBDI for the Mediterranean conditions) at least three raster datasets are required by the application in order to perform calculations: (a) daily maximum temperature data, (b) daily rainfall data, and (c) mean annual rainfall data. For the calculation of Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) two raster datasets are required by the application in order to perform calculations: (a) Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) data, and (b) Reduced Sample Ratio (RSR) data.
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Title: D5.2-2 Guide for end-users to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: The objective of this guide is to propose methodologies to characterize and map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: D5.3-1 Report on the effects of broad scale and long-term application of prescribed burning on fire risk components /
Language: English
Description: Effect of prescribed burning on the mitigation of fire risk was discussed in fire prone ecosystems of three European countries (Greece, France and Portugal). Two study cases were presented using two different fire modelling approaches, the spatial fire growth model FARSITE and FIRETEC a physically based fire propagation model. This study showed that fuel management with prescribed burning had a significant effect on fire propagation hazard. It needs to be completed with further studies on prescribed burning effects on the other fire risk components such as ignition likelihood or vulnerability (fire effects on trees). First results also showed the need of optimizing the spatial pattern of fire application both when applied extensively on the landscape, and when located on a fuel break network. The first study case concerned a conifer forest located in Kassandra peninsula in northern Greece, which has been affected by a 7120 ha wildfire in August 2006. Prescribed burning effectiveness was assessed by using the FARSITE simulator for comparing fire spread over the landscape before and after prescribed burning application on a network of stripe-shaped fuel-breaks. Analysis showed a significant reduction of fire potential (fireline intensity, flame length and total burned area) as a result of fuel treatments. The second study case concerned a shrubland and woodland mosaic in limestone Provence, France, where prescribed burning has been used as a fuel reduction tool for more than 15 years The effectiveness of prescribed burning was assessed by comparing fire potential (rate of spread, fireline intensity) before and in the years following prescribed burning treatments. Analysis carried out at the stand scale gave valuable information on the immediate potential fire hazard reduction after prescribed burning. In order to estimate the appropriate prescribed burning return interval, two management scenarios were used (i) a fire intensity threshold compatible with efficient and safe fire fighting or (ii) a shrub encroachment threshold easy to assess by forest managers. In both cases, the prescribed burning return interval varied from 2 to 3 years, depending on fuel types. When applying prescribed burning on a 15 years period, fire risk mapping on the whole State forest showed a higher fire risk reduction when using the fire intensity threshold than a fuel encroachment threshold. A third study case in the Portuguese mainland tested an important assumption of the fire paradox: does fuel age have an influence on burn probability and wildfire size? Fire frequency analysis of mapped fire perimeters ≥10 ha (1998-2008) indicated that fire occurrence was weakly to moderately dependent of fuel age. However, contrarily to the usual expectation, age-dependency did not decrease for larger fire size classes (i.e with increasingly extreme fire weather). Finally, we explored the variation in fire size statistics with fuel age. Older fuels (roughly >8 years after burning) were associated to more variable fire sizes, allowing much larger wildfires. From the results we infer that landscapes submitted to a mean prescribed fire return interval of 4 years will not support wildfires larger than 500 ha. However, adequate spatial planning of the treatments is expected to reduce the annual treatment rate. This deliverable contributes to solving the Fire Paradox because it clearly shows how fuel modification can decrease wildfire hazard and severity which is the first specific objective to be addressed in Integrated Wildland Fire Management. The state of the art chapter has shown that several fuel modification techniques, such as mechanical treatments, are available and used in Europe, but it has also demonstrated that prescribed burning although being increasingly used in some countries, still has to be strongly supported with the objective of the wisest complementarities between fuel treatments. Also, prescribed burning is the approach based on the paradox of fire, reducing fuels strategically before they can be used by wildfires, thus decreasing wildfire risk and severity.
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Title: Deliverable D6.1-1-0020 SCHEDULE OF THE FUEL EDITOR PROJECT /
Language: English
Description: The Fuel Editor software is aimed at facilitating the dynamic construction of scenes representing vegetation, as “virtual fuel types”. Scenes of vegetation are built by assemblages of trees and shrubs and they are used as input data for the fire propagation models. These “virtual fuel types” could also be used to assess the effects of fire on the vegetation and the need for post fire salvage operations.
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Title: D6.1-3 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOFTWARE /
Language: English
Description: The aim of the Work Package (WP) 6.1 “Design, development, test and deployment of a fuel editor” within the Fire Paradox-project is to develop software that generates vegetation scenes in two dimensions (2D) or three dimensions (3D) to be used as input data for fire behaviour models. The software to be developed will also be used to visualise effects of fire on virtual fuel types as well as to visualise the vegetation build up after fire occurrence. The software has to integrate current data processing procedures and needs to be compatible with both 2D and 3D fire behaviour models. This deliverable is devoted to the description of the architecture and technologies that will be used for developing the software. It is structured in three main parts: a summary of the main functionalities of the software is first presented; then, the software architecture is described and finally, technologies or technology families used for each component and their connections are explained.
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Title: Deliverable D6.1-4a Fire Paradox Fuel Manager: SOFTWARE (INITIAL VERSION) /
Language: English
Description: The FIRE PARADOX FUEL MANAGER is a computer software integrated in the data processing chain between the European data and knowledge base on fuels (EUROFORESTFUELS database) and the 3D physical-based fire propagation models. The scientific objective is the representation of vegetation scenes and their transformation into fuel complexes including all the necessary parameters to run a fire behaviour model. The technological objectives are to implement a user friendly platform to generate fuel complexes in 3D, to provide tools for managing the EUROFORESTFUELS database, to visualize fire effects on trees and simulate post fire vegetation successions. With this deliverable an initial version of the FIRE PARADOX FUEL MANAGER software is released. The deliverable includes two main elements: 1. this paper document (D6.1-4a-18-1000-1.doc) which is both an installation and configuration guide and a draft user manual, 2. two compressed files D6.1-4a-18-1000-2.zip and D6.1-4a-18-1000-3.zip containing all the files necessary to install the initial version of the software on a computer. The final version of the software and of the user manual will be released on month 27 (May 2008) of the Fire Paradox project.
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Title: Deliverable D6.1-5 Fire Paradox Fuel Manager: User’s manual /
Language: English
Description: The FIRE PARADOX FUEL MANAGER is a computer software integrated in the data processing chain between the European data and knowledge base on fuels (EUROFORESTFUELS database) and the 3D physical-based fire propagation models. The scientific objective is the representation of vegetation scenes and their transformation into fuel complexes including all the necessary parameters to run a fire behaviour model. The technological objectives are to implement a user friendly platform to generate fuel complexes in 3D, to provide tools for managing the EUROFORESTFUELS database, to visualize fire effects on trees and simulate post fire vegetation successions. A survey of available simulation platform technologies has led us to join the CAPSIS project, dedicated to hosting a wide range of models for forest dynamics and stand growth. A new CAPSIS module – “FireParadox” – has been developed which implements data structure and functionalities of the FIRE PARADOX FUEL MANAGER. A 3D vegetation scenes’ editor has been implemented allowing interactive manipulative functionalities on vegetation scenes (e.g. zoom, rotation, etc) as well as on vegetation objects (selecting, adding, updating) through a graphical user interface. Several renderers are available to display 3D vegetation objects. Fire damage on vegetation objects have been mainly focused on fire-induced tree mortality. Several fire impacts on trees crown and trunk have been defined and can be visualized at the scene scale. Moreover, several tools are available to display information (descriptive statistics, indicators) on the vegetation scene content or on the current selection. Several creation modes of vegetation scenes are available including loading of a pre-existing inventory file or the automatic generation of a new scene respecting a set of constraints on species distribution. The application is connected through the Internet to the EUROFORESTFUELS database and manages the users rights. EUROFORESTFUELS database is currently hosted by P13-WLS servers in Switzerland and will be located in a near future on P05-EFI server in Finland becoming a facility of the FIREINTUITION platform. An export module has been developed to prepare the set of files necessary to run the fire propagation model. Export files describe the composition and the structure of the fuel complexes taking into account the physical properties of various components of the different vegetation layers (trees, shrubs, herbs and litter) composing the vegetation scene.
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Title: D 6.2-3-18-1000 Comparison of contamination models /
Language: English
Description: In the Fire Paradox project, the objective of the work package 6.2 “Development of a technological platform for integrating the spatial and temporal mechanisms on a completely spatial fire growth tool” is to develop a software tool able to simulate the propagation of fires at a landscape scale showing, through successive contours drawn on a map, the dynamic evolution of fire spread in any environmental scenario. Different models and software tools have been proposed to simulate fire behaviour. This paper analyzes and reviews a selection of existing systems (in terms of simulation comparisons and quantitative analysis) in order to discuss and choose some modelling paradigms as bases for the new Fire Paradox propagation modelling software. Several analyzed models are based on too simplistic physical to be able to simulate the spread of fire across the landscape in a reasonable manner and spatially at high spatial resolution required for the scope of Fire Paradox. In particular they lack consideration of fire-wind feedbacks effects, which we consider mostly important. On the other hand, some tools are a rather complete physical description of the system (including convection effects), but they require (beside a huge use of computational resources) complicated setting of parameters and too detailed data inputs for the Fire Paradox aims. Our conclusion is that Fire Paradox simulator, compared to existing products, should be characterized by an intermediate level. The description of fuel remains a critical issue. We suggest that further investigations should be addressed to define fuel properties related to the combustion process separately from the convection and related propagation processes.
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Title: D 6.3-5 Requirements for WAsP adaptation /
Language: English
Description: WAsP Engineering (WEng) offers a fast, basic wind flow model which can be used to provide most of the wind field predictions needed by the other parts of the Paradox fire model as currently envisaged. If Paradox wishes to provide ‘a European FARSITE’, then WEng is a good starting point. The FARSITE group is implementing a straightforward flow model (WindWizard) to generate input wind fields for their spread simulation, with no feedback from the fire to the wind. WEng has known limitations in complex terrain. A more advanced type of wind model might be necessary if these limitations are revealed to be significant. We can almost certainly provide such a model and drop it in to the Paradox system as a replacement if needed. In the meantime, we should devote some effort to evaluating the shortcomings of WEng in this respect, and comparing its output against other, more complex, flow models. If the simulations need to be run for low wind speed conditions, in which diurnal thermally-driven breezes are relatively important contributors to the predicted wind field, then we can use WEng in conjunction with another model to capture and predict these effects. This has been done before at Risø. So WEng seems an adequate first choice: one which can be extended and consolidated (even replaced) if necessary. Most of this work would fall within our existing experience and expertise. If the Paradox effort must provide a complete European alternative to the ongoing coupled fire-atmosphere modelling work at NCAR, then WEng cannot serve us. In that case, we must begin working with an atmosphere model capable of being coupled, which for us would represent a new research area rather than a re-application of existing technology. WEng cannot be used to model the two-way interaction between the fire and atmosphere (a so-called coupled model), since it is simply not designed to work with intense thermal updrafts. However, we think that we could develop a simpler, implicit treatment of the thermal effects. This would be applied as corrections to the fire-free wind field vectors. We imagine that it could allow us to emulate satisfactorily some important phenomena which coupled fire-atmosphere models have been able to exhibit, but without the complexity and performance costs which have prevented coupled models becoming operational tools.
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Title: D6.4-1 Report on the type of data collection /
Language: English
Description: The target of this document is to analyze the type of data used and the features and the feasibility of a system allowing a friendly availability of results given by the FIRE PARADOX centralized application software for fires propagation simulation, running on a remote dedicated server. With this system, defining a customized peripheral equipment, FIRE PARADOX can be tested on the field to verify the correctness of the defined model. Inputs requested by the remote application server to provide this simulation are: (1) Geo-reference data for fire application points; (2) Vegetation and Morphology Maps; (3) Meteorological parameters as (ground wind speed, ground wind direction, air temperature, air relative humidity).
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to Characterize and to Map Wildland Urban Interface. Part1- State of the art on the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 1 provides an overview of the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: Fire Paradox Fuel Manager /
Language: English
Description: The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a computer software integrated in the data processing chain between the European data and knowledge base on fuels (Fire Paradox Fuel Database) and the 3D physical-based fire propagation models. From a fire manager's point of view, vegetation is not only a conglomerate of plants, but it is also combustible organic material that holds a potential fire risk. It is therefore of great interest to assess the effects of silvicultural measures and fuel treatments to appraise their efficiency on fire hazard reduction. Within the Fire Paradox project such a fuel and fire effects assessment system has been developed. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager enables users to analyse the relationships between vegetation characteristics, fire behaviour and post-fire impact on vegetation. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a key application in the fire modelling process with the following major objectives: (1) to generate vegetation scenes in 3D to be used as input data for fire behaviour modelling; (2) to visualize fire effects on shrubs and trees; (3) to simulate post fire vegetation succession coupled with a plant growth model. The software has been developed on the Capsis (Computer-aided projection of strategies in silviculture) platform for modelling forest dynamics and stand growth. Capsis is a tool for forestry researchers, forest managers and educators.
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to characterize and to map wildland urban interface. Part 2- Methods developed in France, Spain and Greece. Application of the different methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces in Sardinia /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 2 describes methods developed in France, Spain and Greece to characterize and map the wildland urban interface. The three methods were then used to characterize and map the wildland urban interface in Sardinia.
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Title: Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe /
Language: English
Description: Prescribed burning is the planned application of fire to achieve forest and wildland management goals. The practice of prescribed burning demands skills and experience and is always under public scrutiny. The wise use of fire should maximize the benefits of burning while avoiding or minimizing its negative impacts. Consequently, prescribed burning is framed by land management goals and site-specific treatment objectives and is conditioned by both environmental and social restrictions. The decision-making and planning process can thus benefit from decision-support tools that are expected to expand and strengthen the technical proficiency of the practitioners. The inception and adoption of prescribed burning by managers and management organizations is relatively new in Europe and dates back to the early 1980s. The use of prescribed burning is geographically restricted and its potential to manage wildlands is still largely unfulfilled, especially in forested areas. The political and socio-economic environment is decisive, but there is a need for more basic knowledge and operational guidelines to assist prescribed burning programs. The FIRE PARADOX project directed most of its effort to technological development, training and dissemination. As one of the outcomes, this handbook compiles, organizes and synthesizes the information — both qualitative and quantitative — relevant to burning prescriptions in European ecosystems, i.e. the conditions desired for the burn and that will fulfil the pre-defined treatment objectives. The conceptual framework to plan, carry out and evaluate a burn operation in Figure 1 is implicit in the handbook. Knowledge that was dispersed or needed to be formalized is aggregated and digested. The handbook has been developed by: (1) Examining the available technical information, i.e. burning guides and best practices (e.g. Vega et al. 2001, Fernandes et al. 2002, Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department 2008); (2) Collecting prescriptions from the agencies and individuals involved in prescribed burning management or research in Europe; (3) Collecting information from the FIRE PARADOX prescribed burning demonstration sites; (4) Using models of fire behaviour and effects to generate burn prescriptions to achieve more generic or more specific treatment goals. The handbook gathers prescriptions from all around Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden). The environments range from subtropical (Canary islands) to boreal (Sweden). The information is organized and presented in a hierarchy that considers vegetation type, country or region, and management objective. Most data respects to the application of fire to decrease fuel hazard or to manage habitats for pastoral or nature conservation purposes in diverse types of shrubland and pine woodland. Included in the handbook are ranges for the desired weather and moisture conditions and fire behaviour and effects, as well as ignition patterns and the return interval for the treatments. Two types of prescriptions are presented, respectively: (1) to achieve a broad goal, e.g. renew pastures; or (2) to attain a specific treatment objective, usually defined in quantitative terms, e.g. reduce fuel load by 70%. The technological solutions to plan prescribed fire operations vary across Europe. General burning windows consisting of ranges in weather conditions or in fire danger rating indexes (like in Sweden, Germany and Portugal) are commonplace. In Catalonia, Spain, six standard prescriptions are individualized based on fuel availability and wind speed. USDA Forest Service fire simulation tools are used in Spain and Portugal to prepare site-specific prescriptions, which include sets of values (minimum, preferred, maximum) for weather conditions, fuel moisture contents, fire behaviour characteristics and selected fire effects. In Portugal, the PiroPinus tool (Fernandes 2003) was developed to assist in planning and evaluating the results of prescribed underburning in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands. Prescribed burning practitioners are the main target of the ‘Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe’ and can benchmark their practice against the recommendations, familiarize with and try prescriptions developed elsewhere for the same objective and provide input towards improvement and refinement. In the course of exchanges between regions and countries, this handbook is expected to constitute a rapid reference guide for the ‘outsiders’. Educational organizations and environmental consultants will also benefit. The handbook will naturally find application in prescribed burning training and outreach, and can provide a framework to plan research on fire ecology topics. We expect that this handbook will contribute both to disseminate and to improve the wise use of fire across Europe.
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Title: Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina) / Fire behaviour in grassland ecological site 'media loma', western Chaco region (Argentina)
Language: Spanish
Description: Fire behavior, considered a part of fire ecology, is together with fire prevention one of the two components of the ´fire triangle´ currently used as a basis for fire management and control. We assessed the fire behavior in a grassland located in the midland range ecological site in the Chaco region, northwestern Argentina. The site of the experiments was the ´La María´Experimental ranch, INTA Santiago del Estero Research Station, (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E). Fire was applied in two study sites in 6 plots each. Fine fuel load, botanical composition, and fine fuel bulk density were estimated by sampling. Fire behavior was assessed by estimating forward rate of spread and flame length. These data were analysed using ANOVA with study site as independent variable. Correlation among variables was assessed using the Kendall’s ô correlation coefficient. Study sites presented a different botanical composition: plots were either dominated by Trichloris pluriflora (E.) Fournier, or by Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam.) Kuntze. Plant of these species possess different proportion of stems and leaves. These facts significantly affected fine fuel load, bulk density (p > F = 0,0001 in both cases) and the forward rate of spread (p > F = 0.0001). The latter was 27,62 m*min-1 in study site 1, where the first species dominated; and 21 m*.min-1 in study site 2, where the second dominated, respectively. Average flame length was 3,5 m, but reached 6 m when volatile shrubs ignited and participated in the propagation of fire. Correlations among forward rate of spread and fuel load with bulk density was positive and significant (p < 0,0001), but was not significant in the case of flame length. Fires were of high intensity and move fast and need blacklines or other indirect measures for control.
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