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Title: Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center (LLC) / LLC
Language: English
Description: The LLC is an innovative and progressive organizational learning resource center based in Arizona, USA. The Center actively promotes a learning culture to enhance and sustain safe and effective work practices in the wildland fire community. The Center provides opportunities and resources to foster collaboration among all fire professionals, facilitates their networks, provides access to state-of-the-art learning tools, and links learning to training. A library, videos, incident reviews, information on organizational learning, newsletter, advances in fire practices, and much other information are available on the site.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Summary / An innovative approach of integrated wildland fire management regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire: solving the fire paradox
Language: English
Description: Man has always used fire in nature but its misuse can end in catastrophe and, as a Finnish proverb says, "fire is a bad master but a good servant". Contemporary trends of fuel accumulation on the landscape caused by land abandonment are aggravated by efficient fire suppression, with the paradoxical effect of increasing the risk of large and devastating wildfires in the Mediterranean Basin. No matter how sophisticated it is fire fighting technology cannot cope with fire events occurring under extreme weather conditions, as the summers of 2003, 2004 and 2005 have shown. Past European research and practical experience in various countries highlight the need to design fire management and wildfire hazard mitigation policies adapted to the European situation. It is the ambition of FIRE PARADOX to contribute actively to set the bases for a fire management policy that would prevent the current disastrous social, economical and environmental consequences of wildfires in southern Europe.
Date: 20/02/2007
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: Forest fires in Portugal 2003 /
Language: English
Description: Statistics are given in a presentation by Rui Almeida and Luciano Lourenço, of the University of Coimbra Portugal. Diagrams and maps show the incidence of forest fires across the different regions of Portugal in 2003.
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Title: Regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire / Fire Paradox Leaflet 2006
Language: English
Description: An Innovative Approach of Integrated Wildland Fire Management Regulating the Wildfire Problem by the Wise Use of Fire: Solving the Fire Paradox
Date: 27/02/2008
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: COST Action FP0701. Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe /
Language: English
Description: Cost Action FP0701, Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe, is a network of researchers and practitioners working in the field of fire ecology and forest management from all around Europe. The action commenced in May 2008 and will continue for four years. The main objective of this Action is to develop and disseminate scientifically-based decision criteria for post-fire management, applicable from stand-level to landscape-level planning. The short-term expected result is to increase the scientific basis for undertaking appropriate post-fire management practices in Southern Europe; the long-term expected result is to improve the effectiveness in restoring burned areas and reduce fire hazard in European forests and landscapes.
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Title: UNECE/FAO Forest Fire Statistics /
Language: English
Description: Forest fire Statistics provides statistics on forest fires in the UNECE region (Europe, North America and the countries of the CIS). Shown are the number and size of fires by forest types and causes. Previous editions were published under the ECE/TIM series - since 1994 they are part of the Timber Bulletin.
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, OfficeDocument, SpreadsheetDoc, Microsoft Excel [.xls]]
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Title: National Training Information Service (NTIS) / NTIS
Language: English
Description: The National Training Information Service (NTIS) provides a database on vocational education and training in Australia. NTIS is the official national register of information on Training Packages, Qualifications, Courses, Units of Competency and Registered Training Organisations and has been developed for experienced training sector users. NTIS provides a search and browse function that allows finding specific trainings in one or many states and text information on a range of complementary issues.
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Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
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Title: Video_Presribed Burning_Spain_Cuevas Caballero / Video_Quema Prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: National Interagency Prescribed Fire Training Center (PFTC) / PFTC
Language: English
Description: The PFTC is made up of, and supported by different interagency partners in the US. Its mission is to provide opportunities for federal, state, local, and tribal government agencies and other organizations to build skills and knowledge of prescribed fire, with an emphasis on field experience. It is a program blending maximum field prescribed burning experience with a flexible curriculum of classroom instruction on topics of interest to prescribed fire practitioners. Participants hailing from the US and international agencies receive instruction in fire behavior, firing techniques and high reliability organizing.
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Title: National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute (NAFRI) / NAFRI
Language: English
Description: The National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute is a national level center dedicated to developing and enhancing learning experiences. NAFRI serves the interagency wildland fire community through the development and implementation of fire, fuels, resource, and incident management skills and educational processes.
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Title: University of Lleida - Unit of Forest Fires (UL-UFF) / UL-UFF
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The mission of UL-UFF is to provide academic training for graduate and undergraduate students and conduct scientific research in the fields of wildland fire science, forest ecology, and forest management. UL-UFF offers a master degree in wildland fire management and is involved in the MSc of European Forestry.Furthermore, wildland fire software, photos and videos on prescribed burning and fire fighting can be found on the website.
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Title: Firewise /
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The national Firewise Communities program is a multi-agency effort involving homeowners, community leaders, planners, and others to protect people, property, and natural resources from the risk of wildland fire before a fire starts. The Firewise Communities approach emphasizes community responsibility for planning in the design of a safe community as well as effective emergency response, and individual responsibility for safer home construction and maintenance. The website contains a variety of interactive modules, community stories, publications, a library, network, learning center etc. People who live or go on vacation in fireprone areas of North America are informed how to become a firewise individual and get acquainted with the challenges of living in the wildland-urban-interface.
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Title: Prescribed burning as a tool for the Mediterranean region - a management approach (FIRE TORCH) / FIRE TORCH
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The global objective of the FIRE TORCH project was to improve the prescribed burning decision making process, creating the operational basis that will support an extensive use of the technique. The four general objectives were: to identify and analyze the opportunities for prescribed fire development; to model prescribed burning environmental effects and operational know-how; to develop a Decision Support System focusing on the different stages of a burning operation: prescription, execution and evaluation; and to contribute to the technique diffusion and practitioners training. As results a field guide for managers to appraise information necessary to conduct a prescribed burn, and a training and decision support system consisting of integrated software tools were developed. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: EuroFire /
Language: English
Description: EuroFire is an international partnership that has developed a competency based training system for wildfire and prescribed fire management. The outputs of the new European-wide, multi-lingual, on-line training resources include: competency standards, training modules, illustrations and general guidance on a competency based training system. The system incorporates examples of good practices from Europe and around the world. The key target user groups for the EuroFire training materials are: fire-fighters, the rural and land-based sector, industry organisations and education and training institutions. EuroFire was a 2 year project running from 2006 to 2008.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Pico Gorra / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Pico Gorra
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near San Mateo in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was infrastructure protection and fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: National Wildland Fire Training /
Language: English
Description: The National Wildland Fire Training’s mission is to simplify the training communications system with an objective of improving service to the customer and reduce duplication in training administrative services. The national training web site provides a central location for customers to find training course information from all geographic areas by enabling access to Local Area, Geographic Area, National, and other related Interagency Wildland Fire Training information in the USA.
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Title: NWCG Wildland Fire Leadership Development Program /
Language: English
Description: This website provides information regarding the implementation of the Wildland Fire Leadership Development Program. In addition it provides a resource to allow individuals to strive for a higher performance level as a leader through self-directed learning opportunities. A leadership toolbox and information on training courses are available on the website.
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Title: National Wildfire Coordination Group's Training Working Team / NWCG Training Working Team
Language: English
Description: The National Wildfire Coordination Group's (NWCG) Training Working Team (TWT) manages the NWCG training curricula program; recommends for approval the Wildland Fire curriculum; and provides guidance to other teams on the development process and standards. Its mission is to develop relevant NWCG training in a cost-effective manner to meet the needs of the wildland fire community. Information on courses and online training are provided, and training material can be ordered.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Pico Gorra_2 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Pico Gorra_2
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near San Mateo in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was infrastructure protection and fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevos Caballero_2 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevos Caballero_2
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_3 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_3
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_4 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_4
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_5 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_5
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6 / Video_Quema prescrita_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Hinton Training Centre / HTC
Language: English
Description: The Hinton Training Centre (HTC) offers a wide range of training, education and research related to Alberta’s sustainable resources. The HTC delivers annually about 45 wildfire-related courses, from basic fire suppression, to advanced planning and management training, as well as a five-month Wildfire Training Academy program. An interactive, multimedia fire simulator has been developed to place students in realistic fire situations. Several wildfire training CD ROMs are available upon request.
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Title: Partners in Protection /
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: Partners in Protection is a multi-disciplinary partnership committed to raising awareness, providing information, and developing forums with a view to encouraging proactive, community-based initiatives. The principal objective is to reduce risk of fire losses and enhance safety in the wildland-urban interface. Partners in Protection is an Alberta-based coalition of professionals representing national, provincial, and municipal associations and government agencies responsible for emergency services, land-use planning, and forest/park management and research. The website provides practical tools for building FireSmart communities.
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Title: Colorado Wildland Fire and Incident Management Academy (CWFIMA) / CWFIMA
Language: English
Description: The Colorado Wildfire Academy and Great Plains Wildfire College provides National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG), Incident Command System (ICS), and other quality emergency management courses. Its mission is to promote safety and integrate the efforts of local, State, Federal, Tribal, private-sector, and non-governmental emergency response organizations by utilizing the Incident Command System and facilitating a national approach to domestic incident management by providing both the cognitive and hands-on incident management knowledge, instructed by the nations brightest authorities.
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Title: Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) / FCW&FRMT
Language: English
Description: The Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) provides needed training to the public and private sector in forest resource management, prescribed fire, and wildfire management. The Florida Wildland Fire Training focuses heavily on wildland/urban interface issues and tactics.
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Title: Wildfire Specialists Inc. /
Language: English
Description: Wildfire is an accredited company recognized by the Ministry of Natural Resources that provides fire fighting training as well as trained and experienced firefighters and over head for various Wildland Fire configurations for contracting throughout Canada and world-wide. Staff qualified and experienced in areas such as prescribed burn planning, prescribed burn implementation, ecological burning, slash reduction, and burn out operations is also offered. Forest fire fighting equipment is available for lease or rent.
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Title: CORDIS (Community Research and Development Information Service) / CORDIS
Language: EnglishFrenchGermanItalianPolishSpanish
Description: CORDIS, the Community Research and Development Information Service for Science, Research and Development, is the official source of information on the European seventh framework programme (FP7) calls for proposals. CORDIS is an information space, filled with a huge array of accurate and up-to-date data on European research and development activities and capacities. The site allows searching for projects, partners and results.
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Title: Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council (AFAC) / AFAC
Language: English
Description: The AFAC is the peak body for public sector fire, land management and emergency service organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The organisation fosters and promotes an integrated approach to emergency service operations and business management by identifying opportunities to share knowledge, collaborate and optimise the use of resources. AFAC produces policies, guidelines and positions for adoption by Council. Its work also includes facilitation of collaborative purchasing and contract arrangements. AFAC plays a leading role in the development of educational aides, engineering models, training programs and professional development within the fire and emergency service industry. Information on these products and services is available on the website.
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Title: Southwest Fire Use Training Academy (FUTA) / FUTA
Language: English
Description: The Southwest Fire Use Training Academy develops leadership skills in wildland fire use and prescribed fire through the integration of classroom and field-facilitated learning opportunities. The program uses existing fuels programs and facilities throughout the country and exposes trainees to a large variety of interagency fuels management programs.
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Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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Title: PiroPinus version 2.0 /
Language: English
Description: PiroPinus is a prescribed burning guide for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands in the form of a spreadsheet, conceived for operational use in the planning and evaluation of hazard reduction burns in natural fuels, i.e. slash from pruning or thinning is not present. It can also be used as a research tool for fire modelling purposes. Potential users are urged to try the guide in other medium- to long-needled pines (P. pinea, P. canariensis, P. radiata, P. nigra, P. halepensis), especially when the understorey is composed of Mediterranean-type species. PiroPinus is a all-in-one user-friendly tool that integrates models based on observed, real-world, fire behaviour and effects. Unlike other available tools, PiroPinus has the ability to: 1. Reflect local stand and fuel conditions in the output; 2. Assess the likelihood of sustained fire spread and quantify marginal burning conditions. Fire modelling systems using properly developed custom fuel models can be used to obtain accurate estimates of fire behaviour. However, such systems perform poorly at the high-end of the moisture content range and are not able to produce site-specific estimates. PiroPinus is composed of several interrelated or stand-alone worksheets for distinct objectives: (1) FUEL. Data entry of basic fuel and stand descriptors to assess fuel load and fire behaviour and effects; (2) RX WIN. Prescription window (general burning conditions); (3) RX DEV. Prescription development, the definition of burning conditions to avoid undesired fire impacts on trees and the forest floor; (4) MOIST. Fuel moisture content, to estimate the moisture contents of surface fine dead fuels and decomposing litter; (5) FIRE. Ignition and fire behaviour, to assess the likelihood of fire spread and quantify fire characteristics; (6) IGN PLAN. Assessment and optimization of area treatment rate; (7) TREES. Fire impact on trees, to assess canopy damage and mortality; (8) FUEL DYN. Fuel dynamics, to estimate fuel consumption and post-burn accumulation; (9) POST-FIRE. Post-burn assessment of fire behaviour and effects; (10) WEATH. Wind speed estimation and Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (for regional planning).
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Title: D8.2-1 Requirements concerning aerial observation /
Language: English
Description: This document about the aerial observation is a synthesis of needs, technical possibilities and constraints.
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Title: D10.1-1a-28 Survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are a major problem for many European societies threatening human lives and property with disastrous impacts particularly at the wildland-urban interface. Furthermore, this issue has changed greatly in recent years and increasingly the reduction of wildfire hazard and the sustainable development of natural and managed ecosystems in Europe require new practices in wildland fire management, such as prescribed burning and suppression fire, together with increasing the public and political awareness through knowledge and technology transfers. This report is aimed to help solving the fire paradox by a better learning and training in the wise use of fire. We have accomplished a detailed survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire. This review includes several countries: Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Morocco, Italy, France, Germany, and Chile. We have analyzed the official degrees concerned with wildland fire issues with special emphasis towards medium and higher levels of education (college and universities). This subject is mainly addressed in Forestry majors and related fields (i.e., environmental sciences). Often, the “wise use of fire” topic is only a small part of the wildland fire content. We have also reviewed the education addressing worker levels. This includes vocational education (for young people to get ready for the job market in “vegetation and fire management”) and internal agency education (specifically set up to training employees already in an organization or agency, i.e., firefighter department). The later are mostly short courses taught by vegetation or fire managers within the agency. Companies working for the administration also develop these short courses for their employees. In these wildland fire courses, we seldom find “fire use” as a topic. As a result, we propose a set of actions in order to promote the wise use of fire, to allow more tools (i.e., suppression fire use, prescribed burning use) for both vegetation and fire managers, and simultaneously helping to solve the fire paradox. The main proposals are a) to display, in Fire Intuition site (http://fireintuition.efi.int), the academic education and training programs that are available in the present about Suppression Fire and Fuel management. The objective is to make these informations more accessible to the general public and more specifically to prospective students and professional; b) to study how to set up a comprehensive certification process in fire management and to fire workers’ proficiency. In this way, we can get something alike the “red card” certification in USA and Canada that has helped them enormously in large fire conflagrations. In those situations, many people is involved from very diverse agencies and under a single Incident Commander. c) to promote within many universities and vocational schools the “fire paradox concept”, d) to educate and training in fire science and management, e) to promote the exchange of both instructors and students among universities and vocational schools from different countries or regions. Some are doing fine in this regard already. f). to promote an international master degree in Wildland Fire Management (a so called FireMaster proposal has been launch in this direction already) aimed to train and provide the best professionals (fire managers) ever to address this on going challenge of wildland fire damages and scares. In short we propose to promote the wise use of fire to help towards solving the fire paradox.
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Title: D10.1-2 Metadata developed on the existing academic and professional training material related to forest fire. /
Language: English
Description: The aim of this deliverable is to create a metadata-base of the existing academic and professional training material and courses related to forest fires and to organize them within the consortium of FIRE PARADOX. This deliverable deals with Learning Object Metadata (LOM) creation and manipulation. This metadata would provide a useful tool for different purposes such as the on-line part of a master degree in wildland fire science and management. Learning Object Metadata is a data model encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning. The purpose of learning object metadata is to support the reusability of learning objects, to aid discoverability, and to facilitate their interoperability, usually in the context of online learning management systems. LOM standards define the hierarchy of data elements for learning objects description. At the top level of the hierarchy are nine categories, which are described in details in this deliverable. For each data element, LOM specifies a name, explanation, size, example value, data type, and other key details. The “RELOAD Editor”, a Java application, was selected to create learning object metadata. The installation of the software, the metadata file creation, the metadata entering and the functionalities of this editor are described in this deliverable. Furthermore, the procedure for metadata indexing and storage is illustrated.
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Title: D11.1-1 Review of main sources of communication on fire and natural disasters in Europe /
Language: English
Description: The goal of the deliverable D11.1.1 is to make a review of main sources of communication. So this report tries to answer mainly the following question: who diffuses information on fires and natural disasters? This report is concerned by describing the main transmitters of information in the field of wildfires and natural disasters. The structure is as follows: - Presentation of the main theoretical hypothesis and fundamental research axes which have been chosen to guide our research; - Investigation with the partners of the Fire paradox consortium and the main findings; - Search for reports produced on the aspect of communication in the field of natural disasters and wildfires, including short summaries of these reports.
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Title: D11.3-1-18-1000 First draft assessment on the efficiency of new technologies and media to communicate (especially about fire) /
Language: English
Description: The main objective of the present deliverable D11.3-1 is to propose an analysis of the efficiency of new technologies and media to communicate in the field of wildfires, fire-fighting activities and prevention. More precisely, our concern is: communication tools on the Internet. We should remember that the present deliverable is centred only on technical aspects and not on the communication strategy. First we analyse some existing communication tools on the Internet in order to observe their characteristics (forms but also content) in the perspective of efficient on line communication. Thanks to our research on existing tools and on communication strategies we have come to the conclusion that new media based on Internet are essential for communicating to the general public on the wildfire management. Internet is interesting not only to diffuse information but also to have a strong relationship with people. Concerning more specifically FIRE PARADOX, an official Web site has been available since the beginning of the project but it has been intended mainly to the members of the consortium. So it is important to create other on-line communication tools for the general public. More generally the consortium decided, in Cagliari, to develop a Multimedia On line Platform. A first step is to analyse the fundamental characteristics of communication tools on Internet. Then we study the possible specifications for a prototype. We analyse various possible functionalities/tools first generally for a Web site, then according to the public and finally according to marketing aspects. This study leads us to the presentation of the CMS Tool called SPIP chosen to develop a prototype; and we propose a first version of a prototype. Finally, in the conclusion, we present the main choices made concerning the on line tools for communicating on FIRE PARADOX. The present deliverable has contributed to the conception and realisation of the Fire Paradox portal and has permitted to advance the work on some examples of communication tools.
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Title: Deliverable D9.1-4-1000 Guidelines for prescribed burning for the specific vegetation types assessed within the FIRE PARADOX community /
Language: English
Description: In this paper guidelines for prescribed burning inside pine stands are provided for Southern Africa. Where applicable, these guidelines have been extended to Mediterranean countries in Europe, where pine stands are growing under near-similar conditions, in related natural vegetation bases. It was determined that - where pine trees were established in dynamic grasslands - fire can be applied without damage to the trees when the trees are still relatively young, but that is not the case when pine trees are growing inside a shrubland vegetation base. In the case of the latter existence of a significant percentage of the base vegetation present, may force postponement of the earliest burning date to a stage when tree crown canopies have suppressed most of this vegetation. Subsequently the degree of crown canopy closure was found to be the major influencing factor in determining the degree of difficulty of prescribed burning inside pine stands: The closer the tree crown canopy, the easier it will be to apply fire with an acceptable degree of safety. Adversely, it was determined that the more dominant natural vegetation (particularly shrubland) was present inside pine stands, the more difficult it will be to apply prescribed burning inside stands without damage to the trees, and that tree mortality could be possible (de Ronde et al. 1990; de Ronde et al. 2004b). Photoseries, forest floor classifications and fuel classifications have been identified as useful fuel-assessment tools for the application of prescribed fire with confidence and - where these do not exist at a regional scale - the development of such fire management tools is strongly recommended (de Ronde, 2008a). The relative role of cambium damage and tree crown scorch have also been presented in this paper, by species, vegetation base, tree age and tree growth rate (tree size). Recommendations have also been provided how to restrict fire damage to trees under various burning conditions and tree stand characteristics. These recommendations were also extended to certain regions within some Mediterranean countries (de Ronde, 1988; de Ronde et al., 1990).
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Title: Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe /
Language: English
Description: Prescribed burning is the planned application of fire to achieve forest and wildland management goals. The practice of prescribed burning demands skills and experience and is always under public scrutiny. The wise use of fire should maximize the benefits of burning while avoiding or minimizing its negative impacts. Consequently, prescribed burning is framed by land management goals and site-specific treatment objectives and is conditioned by both environmental and social restrictions. The decision-making and planning process can thus benefit from decision-support tools that are expected to expand and strengthen the technical proficiency of the practitioners. The inception and adoption of prescribed burning by managers and management organizations is relatively new in Europe and dates back to the early 1980s. The use of prescribed burning is geographically restricted and its potential to manage wildlands is still largely unfulfilled, especially in forested areas. The political and socio-economic environment is decisive, but there is a need for more basic knowledge and operational guidelines to assist prescribed burning programs. The FIRE PARADOX project directed most of its effort to technological development, training and dissemination. As one of the outcomes, this handbook compiles, organizes and synthesizes the information — both qualitative and quantitative — relevant to burning prescriptions in European ecosystems, i.e. the conditions desired for the burn and that will fulfil the pre-defined treatment objectives. The conceptual framework to plan, carry out and evaluate a burn operation in Figure 1 is implicit in the handbook. Knowledge that was dispersed or needed to be formalized is aggregated and digested. The handbook has been developed by: (1) Examining the available technical information, i.e. burning guides and best practices (e.g. Vega et al. 2001, Fernandes et al. 2002, Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department 2008); (2) Collecting prescriptions from the agencies and individuals involved in prescribed burning management or research in Europe; (3) Collecting information from the FIRE PARADOX prescribed burning demonstration sites; (4) Using models of fire behaviour and effects to generate burn prescriptions to achieve more generic or more specific treatment goals. The handbook gathers prescriptions from all around Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden). The environments range from subtropical (Canary islands) to boreal (Sweden). The information is organized and presented in a hierarchy that considers vegetation type, country or region, and management objective. Most data respects to the application of fire to decrease fuel hazard or to manage habitats for pastoral or nature conservation purposes in diverse types of shrubland and pine woodland. Included in the handbook are ranges for the desired weather and moisture conditions and fire behaviour and effects, as well as ignition patterns and the return interval for the treatments. Two types of prescriptions are presented, respectively: (1) to achieve a broad goal, e.g. renew pastures; or (2) to attain a specific treatment objective, usually defined in quantitative terms, e.g. reduce fuel load by 70%. The technological solutions to plan prescribed fire operations vary across Europe. General burning windows consisting of ranges in weather conditions or in fire danger rating indexes (like in Sweden, Germany and Portugal) are commonplace. In Catalonia, Spain, six standard prescriptions are individualized based on fuel availability and wind speed. USDA Forest Service fire simulation tools are used in Spain and Portugal to prepare site-specific prescriptions, which include sets of values (minimum, preferred, maximum) for weather conditions, fuel moisture contents, fire behaviour characteristics and selected fire effects. In Portugal, the PiroPinus tool (Fernandes 2003) was developed to assist in planning and evaluating the results of prescribed underburning in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands. Prescribed burning practitioners are the main target of the ‘Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe’ and can benchmark their practice against the recommendations, familiarize with and try prescriptions developed elsewhere for the same objective and provide input towards improvement and refinement. In the course of exchanges between regions and countries, this handbook is expected to constitute a rapid reference guide for the ‘outsiders’. Educational organizations and environmental consultants will also benefit. The handbook will naturally find application in prescribed burning training and outreach, and can provide a framework to plan research on fire ecology topics. We expect that this handbook will contribute both to disseminate and to improve the wise use of fire across Europe.
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