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Title: Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Grupo de Fogos Florestais / Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Forest Fire Group
Language: Portuguese
Description: The Forest Fire Group is an activity of the Department of Forest and Landscape at the Universidad de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD). The Forest Fire Group was established in 1983 and has undertaken research in fuel and fire behavior modeling, fire risk and fire danger index, preventive silviculture and fuel management, controlled fire, adaptation and vulnerability of forests to fire.
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Title: Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center (LLC) / LLC
Language: English
Description: The LLC is an innovative and progressive organizational learning resource center based in Arizona, USA. The Center actively promotes a learning culture to enhance and sustain safe and effective work practices in the wildland fire community. The Center provides opportunities and resources to foster collaboration among all fire professionals, facilitates their networks, provides access to state-of-the-art learning tools, and links learning to training. A library, videos, incident reviews, information on organizational learning, newsletter, advances in fire practices, and much other information are available on the site.
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Title: D7.1-1.1-36 List and classification of the existing EU and national forest legislation and national policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires /
Language: English
Description: A compilation and classification was made of existing regulations and policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires, both in North African countries and for Europe. Since wildland fire issues are mainly dealt within national forest policies, this analysis has mainly focused on the national scale, although the existence of different multilevel governance structures make it necessary to address the issue on a regional level in decentralized countries. Thus, three types of regulatory texts are identified as relevant for the Integrated Wildland Fire Management: (i) Basic Forest Legislation, (ii) Basic Wildland Fire Legislation, and (iii) Specific Legislation on the Use of Fire. Concerning policy instruments, two planning documents have been considered: National/Regional Forest Programmes and specific plans concerning defence and protection against wildfires. Its typology depends on (i) the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies, and (ii) the responsibility allocation within each national governance structure (situation of decentralization). The compilation and classification of these documents was based on the information obtained from a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission, and on other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The review of existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments in 21 EU countries and three North African countries has identified the following key issues: (1) The existence of a range of definitions related to wildland fire management, with different meanings in different European settings as well as differing legal terminology for these terms. (2) The importance of the structure of national governance. The degree of decentralization will determine where the responsibilities are allocated and how they are developed. Therefore, the structure of national governance will be one of the main factors guiding future assessment of national forest policies. (3) The influence of the European Union in national forest policies through EU regulations dealing with specific aspects of the forest sector or forest-related issues, as a complement to national activities, where necessary. (4) There is a great diversity among the regulatory texts and policy instruments related to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires in European and North African countries, due to the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies and the different wildfire risk in each national/regional context. (5) Few of the analysed countries have a specific wildland fire law or regulation. Most of them deal with wildfires within their Forest Laws, through a specific chapter dedicated to wildfires (Southern countries) or in a general chapter on forest protection (Northern countries). (6) There are some countries that do not yet have a specific policy for wildland fires, but progress on forest policy is noted in all the countries included in the report. (7) The compilation of policy instruments shows that 12 of 17 countries considered in the document have a specific wildland fire plan or strategy; these are often linked to national forest policy. (8) Regulation of the use of fire in Europe, although extensive, has focused almost exclusively on the regulation of activities that involve the use of fire in wildland areas or close to these areas (i.e. fire for recreation, alimentation purposes or traditional rural practices). However, fire use for forest management, wildfire prevention and for wildfire suppression receives little attention in legislation. When addressed, it is usually authorized but not regulated, possibly due to the recent development of these perspectives in the continent.
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Title: Deliverable D.7.1-1-2 Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy instruments concerning integrated wildland fire management in the EU, in European Member States and in North African countries /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are one of the main risks affecting European forests, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Socio-economic changes, some forest management actions and other policy measures outside the forest sector (i.e. environmental and nature protection policies) have generally influenced the flammability of ecosystems and increased the risk of large wildfires. Policy and legislation have great relevance in fire management in order to face the new realities that are bringing about fundamental changes within the forest sector. This document is the second step in the analysis process of the existing European and national legislation and policy instruments with reference to wildland fires. The first step was the compilation and classification of the related documents. This document presents the assessment of the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy outputs in order to consider their contributions to integrated wildland fire management. The assessment is based on the information obtained through a questionnaire sent to the national representatives of the Expert Group on Forest Fires (a group linked to the European Forest Fire Information System, EFFIS, established by the Joint Research Centre, JRC, of the European Commission), national fire technicians and other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The territorial scope covers the European Union including its 27 Member States and a representation of the North African countries through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, not all the EU-countries are included in the present document due to the lack of official information. The scales considered for the analysis are the European Union context and the national level. The assessment of the wildfire related legislation and policy instruments has tried to address, considering not only the sometimes limited information available but also, and most important, the general descriptive and self-complementary tone of the primary material analyzed, the following issues: (1) Are existing legislation and policies adapted to the specific national contexts? (2) Are policies and legislations implemented and enforced correctly? (3) Are national policies iterative and participatory processes? Is the legal framework open to revision and dynamic? (4) Which are the major fire-related issues considered in order to achieve Integrated Wildland Fire Management? (5) Is there effective cross-sectoral coordination among the different organizations working on wildland fires? (6) The responsibility for reducing the likelihood and consequence of wildfires is appropriately shared between the public administration and private land owners/managers. As a result of the analysis of the existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments the following strengths and weakness have been identified: (1) There are shortcomings in national regulations that need to be sorted out in order to provide a useful, self-contained and common wildfire legal framework for the Member States. This statement is especially evident as regards prescribed fire and suppression fire regulations. (2) Even though the European legislation has contributed to homogenize national legal frameworks, there are still important differences among countries. The comprehensiveness and scope of national regulations is above all different if Mediterranean countries (including France and Bulgaria, which share similar problems) are compared with other European countries. (3) Most forestry-related documents hardly ever mention wildfire management. In fact, there are some countries that do not have a specific policy for wildland fires yet, but some progress is to be noticed in all countries as wildfires are becoming a growing problem. (4) The diverse risk severity of wildfires in the national contexts and the different political and administrative systems existing in each country justify to some extent the differing scope of each country's national legal and policy instruments. Besides, the vagueness of the concept of sustainable forest management allows for the introduction of taylored practices in different contexts, let alone the reference to the diverse environmental circumstances in Europe that many that EU documents have incorporated. (5)Lack of an effective coordination among the different units dealing with wildland fires is clearly a weak point. Further, problems of coordination are aggravated by the fact that many countries have federal systems (multilevel governance frequently leads to time-consuming processes and sub-optimal results) or are undergoing decentralization trends. (6) Regarding community-based cooperation, organized groups of local stakeholders are emerging especially in Mediterranean countries. These groups contribute to fire management as a result of instrumental motivation, or self-interest. Furthermore, some common ecological and socio-economical patterns have been recognised at the regional level, which will be used to provide recommendations for the future and to set the basis for a new legislation and policy measures relative to integrated wildland fire management, adapted to each territorial context.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Summary / An innovative approach of integrated wildland fire management regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire: solving the fire paradox
Language: English
Description: Man has always used fire in nature but its misuse can end in catastrophe and, as a Finnish proverb says, "fire is a bad master but a good servant". Contemporary trends of fuel accumulation on the landscape caused by land abandonment are aggravated by efficient fire suppression, with the paradoxical effect of increasing the risk of large and devastating wildfires in the Mediterranean Basin. No matter how sophisticated it is fire fighting technology cannot cope with fire events occurring under extreme weather conditions, as the summers of 2003, 2004 and 2005 have shown. Past European research and practical experience in various countries highlight the need to design fire management and wildfire hazard mitigation policies adapted to the European situation. It is the ambition of FIRE PARADOX to contribute actively to set the bases for a fire management policy that would prevent the current disastrous social, economical and environmental consequences of wildfires in southern Europe.
Date: 20/02/2007
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: Forest fires in Portugal 2003 /
Language: English
Description: Statistics are given in a presentation by Rui Almeida and Luciano Lourenço, of the University of Coimbra Portugal. Diagrams and maps show the incidence of forest fires across the different regions of Portugal in 2003.
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Title: D3.3.2 / deliverable
Language: English
Description: The first stage of the fuel database is presented.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Web Site / www.fireparadox.org
Language: English
Description: The main FIREPARADOX project web site. This site is used for dissemination of project information and management and reporting for the project partners
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Title: Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) /
Language: English
Description: The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) provides a global portal for wildland fire documentation, information and monitoring and is publicly accessible through the Internet. The regularly updated national to global wildland fire products of the GFMC are generated by a worldwide network of cooperating institutions. The online and offline products include: (1) Early warning of fire danger and near-real time monitoring of fire events, (2) Interpretation, synthesis and archive of global fire information, (3) Support of local, national and international entities to develop long-term strategies or policies for wildland fire management, (4) Serve as advisory body to the UN system through the coordination of the UN-ISDR Wildland Fire Advisory Group and the ISDR Global Wildland Fire Network, (5) Emergency hotline and liaison capabilities for providing assistance for rapid assessment and decision support in response to wildland fire emergencies.
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Title: Regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire / Fire Paradox Leaflet 2006
Language: English
Description: An Innovative Approach of Integrated Wildland Fire Management Regulating the Wildfire Problem by the Wise Use of Fire: Solving the Fire Paradox
Date: 27/02/2008
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: COST Action FP0701. Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe /
Language: English
Description: Cost Action FP0701, Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe, is a network of researchers and practitioners working in the field of fire ecology and forest management from all around Europe. The action commenced in May 2008 and will continue for four years. The main objective of this Action is to develop and disseminate scientifically-based decision criteria for post-fire management, applicable from stand-level to landscape-level planning. The short-term expected result is to increase the scientific basis for undertaking appropriate post-fire management practices in Southern Europe; the long-term expected result is to improve the effectiveness in restoring burned areas and reduce fire hazard in European forests and landscapes.
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Title: UNECE/FAO Forest Fire Statistics /
Language: English
Description: Forest fire Statistics provides statistics on forest fires in the UNECE region (Europe, North America and the countries of the CIS). Shown are the number and size of fires by forest types and causes. Previous editions were published under the ECE/TIM series - since 1994 they are part of the Timber Bulletin.
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, OfficeDocument, SpreadsheetDoc, Microsoft Excel [.xls]]
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Title: National Training Information Service (NTIS) / NTIS
Language: English
Description: The National Training Information Service (NTIS) provides a database on vocational education and training in Australia. NTIS is the official national register of information on Training Packages, Qualifications, Courses, Units of Competency and Registered Training Organisations and has been developed for experienced training sector users. NTIS provides a search and browse function that allows finding specific trainings in one or many states and text information on a range of complementary issues.
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Title: Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Laboratorio di ecologia applicata / Laboratory of applied ecology
Language: English
Description: Research activities of the Laboratory of applied ecology comprise modeling, fire ecology, habitats and flora, plant ecology and animal ecology. The fire ecology field covers post-fire succession, fire statistical analysis, and fire fighting planning.
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Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
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Title: Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh) / MAICh
Language: English
Description: The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh) is a constituent Institute of the International Centre of Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies. It is dedicated to postgraduate and specialized education, applied research and the development of Mediterranean agriculture. A fire related MSc can be obtained within the Environmental Management programme. The postgraduate programme of Environmental Management offers the possibility to undertake research in forest fires and is equipped with a laboratory of geographic information systems, a forest fire wind tunnel simulator, and a natural objects spectroradiometry identification unit.
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Title: Land use change interactions with fire in Mediterranean Landscapes (LUCIFER) / LUCIFER
Language: English
Description: The project aimed to assess the interactions between fire and landscape structures in fire-prone areas in Mediterranean countries. Fire effects on the ecosystems and their influence on species changes were evaluated. Based on past landscapes and fire incidence, models of landscape change and its significance for species dynamics were developed to evaluate fire risk and other threats to the ecosystem. The project ran from 1996 to 2000.
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Title: EU-FIRE: Innovative optoelectronic and acoustic sensing technologies for large scale forest fire long term monitoring / EU-FIRE
Language: English
Description: The EU-FIRE project has the objective to design a new forest fires monitoring system able to guarantee accurate and continuous surveillance and forecasting, immediate detection of fire beginnings, monitoring of the fire evolution, and timely exchange of information from fire fronts. The EU-FIRE integrated prototype is based on 3 components: a microphones system for volumetric scanning; fibre optic senscors networks for the detection of changes in the parameters associated to fire, such as temperature and gaseous emissions; and a Local Control Unit able to integrate data from acoustic and optoelectronic sensors. The results will lead, in the mid-term, to the provision of improved performance detection systems, and, in the long term, to the establishment of a common European model for forest fire monitoring.
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Title: University of Zurich, Department of Geography /
Language: English
Description: The unit Geographic Information Systems (GIS) of the Department of Geography at the University of Zurich is working on the development of fundamental methods and techniques in Geographic Information Science, as well as their application in the environment and especially in protected areas. This research is carried out within three research groups: Digital Cartography and Mobile Systems, Digital Terrain Modeling, and Environmental Geoinformatics. Within the scope of Environmental Geoinformatics fire science projects have been conducted.
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Title: Video_Presribed Burning_Spain_Cuevas Caballero / Video_Quema Prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: National Interagency Prescribed Fire Training Center (PFTC) / PFTC
Language: English
Description: The PFTC is made up of, and supported by different interagency partners in the US. Its mission is to provide opportunities for federal, state, local, and tribal government agencies and other organizations to build skills and knowledge of prescribed fire, with an emphasis on field experience. It is a program blending maximum field prescribed burning experience with a flexible curriculum of classroom instruction on topics of interest to prescribed fire practitioners. Participants hailing from the US and international agencies receive instruction in fire behavior, firing techniques and high reliability organizing.
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Title: National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute (NAFRI) / NAFRI
Language: English
Description: The National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute is a national level center dedicated to developing and enhancing learning experiences. NAFRI serves the interagency wildland fire community through the development and implementation of fire, fuels, resource, and incident management skills and educational processes.
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Title: Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP) / CIEFAP
Language: Spanish
Description: CIEFAP is a scientific, educational institution which aims to foster the development of the region by the sustainable use of its native forests and plantations, the preservation of the environment and the promotion of ecotourism through knowledge generation and transfer. The study area of the Center is the Andean zone of Patagonia Argentina. Fire research is undertaken within the four thematic axes of conservation and forest management, forest protection, territorial planning, and wood technology.
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Title: University of Lleida - Unit of Forest Fires (UL-UFF) / UL-UFF
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The mission of UL-UFF is to provide academic training for graduate and undergraduate students and conduct scientific research in the fields of wildland fire science, forest ecology, and forest management. UL-UFF offers a master degree in wildland fire management and is involved in the MSc of European Forestry.Furthermore, wildland fire software, photos and videos on prescribed burning and fire fighting can be found on the website.
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Title: Firewise /
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The national Firewise Communities program is a multi-agency effort involving homeowners, community leaders, planners, and others to protect people, property, and natural resources from the risk of wildland fire before a fire starts. The Firewise Communities approach emphasizes community responsibility for planning in the design of a safe community as well as effective emergency response, and individual responsibility for safer home construction and maintenance. The website contains a variety of interactive modules, community stories, publications, a library, network, learning center etc. People who live or go on vacation in fireprone areas of North America are informed how to become a firewise individual and get acquainted with the challenges of living in the wildland-urban-interface.
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Title: Design of a frame work for producing and providing earth observation based information services for forest fires management at European and local levels (Control Fire Sat) / Control Fire Sat Project
Language: English
Description: The aim of the CFS Project was the provision of real-time Earth Observation data to be used in forest fire management. A pre-operational warning and information system was developed. CFS delivered four customized products derived from NOAA-AVHRR data: daily fire risk maps; a fire detection and warning system operating during night hours; monitoring of the fire front evolution during a fire event, and a near real-time web delivery system for the previous products. Activities covered the summer seasons of 1998 and 1999 for Greece, Spain and France. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: Prescribed burning as a tool for the Mediterranean region - a management approach (FIRE TORCH) / FIRE TORCH
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The global objective of the FIRE TORCH project was to improve the prescribed burning decision making process, creating the operational basis that will support an extensive use of the technique. The four general objectives were: to identify and analyze the opportunities for prescribed fire development; to model prescribed burning environmental effects and operational know-how; to develop a Decision Support System focusing on the different stages of a burning operation: prescription, execution and evaluation; and to contribute to the technique diffusion and practitioners training. As results a field guide for managers to appraise information necessary to conduct a prescribed burn, and a training and decision support system consisting of integrated software tools were developed. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: Euromediterranean Wildland Fire Laboratory - EUFIRELAB / EUFIRELAB
Language: EnglishFinnishFrenchGreekItalianPortugueseSpanish
Description: The EUFIRELAB is a wall-less laboratory for wildland fire sciences and technologies in the euromediterranean region that enables knowledge and data exchange. The research units are divided into fuel description and modelling; wildland fire behavior modelling; fire ecology; socio-economy; decision support tools; meteorology; fire risks; fire suppression and wildland urban interfaces management. It aims to provide up-dated states of the art, to develop common methodologies and to propose answers to end-users. The products provided on the website are an E-library, E-observatories, news, forums, deliverables, jobs and CV, and specific studies related to wildland fire. The project ran from 2002 to 2006.
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Title: BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering / BRE
Language: English
Description: The BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering is part of the Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. The research fire centre exists to: support today's fire safety with multidisciplinary research; provide education in Fire Safety Engineering and Structural Fire Engineering; deliver fire safety consultancy services to industry and other consultancies; disseminate information about advances and research in fire safety engineering through courses, symposia and publications. A variety of research projects from detailed studies of fundamental combustion processes through to the application of fire safety engineering in practice is performed. Numerical modelling work as well as experimental research is carried out.
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Title: EuroFire /
Language: English
Description: EuroFire is an international partnership that has developed a competency based training system for wildfire and prescribed fire management. The outputs of the new European-wide, multi-lingual, on-line training resources include: competency standards, training modules, illustrations and general guidance on a competency based training system. The system incorporates examples of good practices from Europe and around the world. The key target user groups for the EuroFire training materials are: fire-fighters, the rural and land-based sector, industry organisations and education and training institutions. EuroFire was a 2 year project running from 2006 to 2008.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Pico Gorra / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Pico Gorra
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near San Mateo in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was infrastructure protection and fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: Eurasian Fire in Nature Conservation Network (EFNCN) / EFNCN
Language: English
Description: The EFNCN provides a platform and networking mechanism for those who actively apply or conduct research in prescribed burning for the purpose of nature conservation (biodiversity management, habitat management), landscape management and forestry. The region of interest is temperate-boreal Eurasia and the adjoining countries of Southeast Europe, Caucasus, Central and Northeast Asia. A review on the cultural fire history and fire ecology of Central Northern Europe is presented on this site with an extensive list of bibliography as well as a list of EFNCN and related meetings.
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Title: Pacific Forest Forum (PFF) / PFF
Language: EnglishRussian
Description: PFF is a non-governmental organization created by a group of forest specialists. PFF implements: education and training; research work; participation in Russian and international programs and projects; organization of conferences, seminars, meetings both domestic and international; printing of scientific materials, books, articles; field expeditions and experiments; consultation services; information dissemination; capacity building in the Northeast Asia, etc., in the field of forestry, forest fires and forest fire management, and international research collaboration.
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Title: National Wildland Fire Training /
Language: English
Description: The National Wildland Fire Training’s mission is to simplify the training communications system with an objective of improving service to the customer and reduce duplication in training administrative services. The national training web site provides a central location for customers to find training course information from all geographic areas by enabling access to Local Area, Geographic Area, National, and other related Interagency Wildland Fire Training information in the USA.
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Title: NWCG Wildland Fire Leadership Development Program /
Language: English
Description: This website provides information regarding the implementation of the Wildland Fire Leadership Development Program. In addition it provides a resource to allow individuals to strive for a higher performance level as a leader through self-directed learning opportunities. A leadership toolbox and information on training courses are available on the website.
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Title: National Wildfire Coordination Group's Training Working Team / NWCG Training Working Team
Language: English
Description: The National Wildfire Coordination Group's (NWCG) Training Working Team (TWT) manages the NWCG training curricula program; recommends for approval the Wildland Fire curriculum; and provides guidance to other teams on the development process and standards. Its mission is to develop relevant NWCG training in a cost-effective manner to meet the needs of the wildland fire community. Information on courses and online training are provided, and training material can be ordered.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Pico Gorra_2 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Pico Gorra_2
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near San Mateo in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was infrastructure protection and fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevos Caballero_2 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevos Caballero_2
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forests.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_3 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_3
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_4 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_4
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a low intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fuel load reduction in a Canarian Pine forest.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_5 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_5
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6 / Video_Quema prescrita_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Hinton Training Centre / HTC
Language: English
Description: The Hinton Training Centre (HTC) offers a wide range of training, education and research related to Alberta’s sustainable resources. The HTC delivers annually about 45 wildfire-related courses, from basic fire suppression, to advanced planning and management training, as well as a five-month Wildfire Training Academy program. An interactive, multimedia fire simulator has been developed to place students in realistic fire situations. Several wildfire training CD ROMs are available upon request.
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Title: Partners in Protection /
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: Partners in Protection is a multi-disciplinary partnership committed to raising awareness, providing information, and developing forums with a view to encouraging proactive, community-based initiatives. The principal objective is to reduce risk of fire losses and enhance safety in the wildland-urban interface. Partners in Protection is an Alberta-based coalition of professionals representing national, provincial, and municipal associations and government agencies responsible for emergency services, land-use planning, and forest/park management and research. The website provides practical tools for building FireSmart communities.
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Title: Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) / FFS
Language: English
Description: The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program of the Rocky Mountain Research Station is located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The Program conducts international, cutting edge work in wildland fire research from fire physics to fire ecology. The Program performs work under its national charter to conduct fundamental and applied research relating to wildland fire processes, terrestrial and atmospheric effects of fire, and ecological adaptations to fire. In addition, the Program develops associated knowledge tools and applications for both managers and scientists. Original research includes: fire behavior prediction modeling, soil heating modeling and effects, landscape fire ecosystem dynamics, smoke emissions and dispersion modeling, and fire danger rating.
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Title: Colorado Wildland Fire and Incident Management Academy (CWFIMA) / CWFIMA
Language: English
Description: The Colorado Wildfire Academy and Great Plains Wildfire College provides National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG), Incident Command System (ICS), and other quality emergency management courses. Its mission is to promote safety and integrate the efforts of local, State, Federal, Tribal, private-sector, and non-governmental emergency response organizations by utilizing the Incident Command System and facilitating a national approach to domestic incident management by providing both the cognitive and hands-on incident management knowledge, instructed by the nations brightest authorities.
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Title: Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) / FCW&FRMT
Language: English
Description: The Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) provides needed training to the public and private sector in forest resource management, prescribed fire, and wildfire management. The Florida Wildland Fire Training focuses heavily on wildland/urban interface issues and tactics.
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Title: US Forest Service Fire and Aviation Management /
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Aviation Management part of the US Forest Service is working in wildland fire management, operations, and research. The website provides a wide range of information and links on various topics from fire equipment, management, suppression, fire science, fire use, prevention and education, publications, news, training, employment, tools and technology, safety, to aviation and other.
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Title: Wildfire Specialists Inc. /
Language: English
Description: Wildfire is an accredited company recognized by the Ministry of Natural Resources that provides fire fighting training as well as trained and experienced firefighters and over head for various Wildland Fire configurations for contracting throughout Canada and world-wide. Staff qualified and experienced in areas such as prescribed burn planning, prescribed burn implementation, ecological burning, slash reduction, and burn out operations is also offered. Forest fire fighting equipment is available for lease or rent.
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Title: Fire and Environmental Research Application Team (FERA) / FERA
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) informs management of natural resources through research and development in fuels and combustion science, fire and landscape ecology, and integration of the physical and ecological sciences. Detailed information on research projects, studies, publications, products, and news are available on the website.
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Title: CORDIS (Community Research and Development Information Service) / CORDIS
Language: EnglishFrenchGermanItalianPolishSpanish
Description: CORDIS, the Community Research and Development Information Service for Science, Research and Development, is the official source of information on the European seventh framework programme (FP7) calls for proposals. CORDIS is an information space, filled with a huge array of accurate and up-to-date data on European research and development activities and capacities. The site allows searching for projects, partners and results.
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Title: Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre / Bushfire CRC
Language: English
Description: Through the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre (Bushfire CRC) fire and land management agencies across Australia and New Zealand are working closely with researchers in the field of bushfire research. The aim of the Bushfire CRC is to gain a better understanding of the role of fire in the Australian environment. The research program focuses on five inter-related areas of research activity: Safe Prevention, Preparation and Suppression; Management of Fire in the Landscape; Community Self-Sufficiency for Fire Safety; Protection of People and Property; and Education, Training and Communication.
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Title: CSIRO Bushfire Team / Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Language: English
Description: CSIRO bushfire research is improving the understanding of fire, and improving technologies and strategies to save lives and limit damage. CSIRO has been involved in bushfire research for more than forty years. This has focused on: understanding and predicting bushfire behavior; the impact of bushfires on infrastructure; ecological responses to fire; the impact of climate change on bushfire risk; and pollutants and greenhouse gases as a result of bushfires.
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Title: Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) / WFORG)
Language: English
Description: The Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) was established in January 2001 in Hinton, Alberta. The WFORG's mission is to work on wildfire operations research, which includes evaluating fire equipment and protective clothing, reviewing and refining fire management systems and addressing current operational issues that have been identified by fire management practitioners within the forest industry. Research outputs are intended to benefit firefighters, fire managers, equipment manufacturers and service agencies.
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Title: Forest Fire Laboratory /
Language: English
Description: The Forest Fire Laboratory in Riverside, California, is a field research facility of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, headquartered in Albany, California. The laboratory is one of two Forest Service Labs in the nation devoted primarily to fire research. The five research units located at the Forest Fire Laboratory conduct research in the broad areas of Air Quality, Fire Science (prescribed fire, fire effects, wildland fire management etc.), and Recreation.
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Title: Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council (AFAC) / AFAC
Language: English
Description: The AFAC is the peak body for public sector fire, land management and emergency service organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The organisation fosters and promotes an integrated approach to emergency service operations and business management by identifying opportunities to share knowledge, collaborate and optimise the use of resources. AFAC produces policies, guidelines and positions for adoption by Council. Its work also includes facilitation of collaborative purchasing and contract arrangements. AFAC plays a leading role in the development of educational aides, engineering models, training programs and professional development within the fire and emergency service industry. Information on these products and services is available on the website.
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Title: The Northwest and Alaska Fire Research Clearinghouse (FIREHouse) / FIREHouse
Language: English
Description: FIREHouse is a web-based project providing information about fire science and technology relevant to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Alaska. A goal is to provide "one-stop shopping" for resource managers, decision makers, scientists, students, and communities who want access to the results of efforts to understand and manage fire and fuels on public lands in these regions. It is designed to assist fire programs by facilitating access to fire research and associated information. The website provides online access to: Project and tool descriptions, contact information and links; Online publications; Proposals and study plans; Models; and Metadata.
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Title: Southwest Fire Use Training Academy (FUTA) / FUTA
Language: English
Description: The Southwest Fire Use Training Academy develops leadership skills in wildland fire use and prescribed fire through the integration of classroom and field-facilitated learning opportunities. The program uses existing fuels programs and facilities throughout the country and exposes trainees to a large variety of interagency fuels management programs.
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Title: PHOENIX /
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: PHOENIX is a regional project centre of the European Forest Institute (EFI). PHOENIX has 18 member institutions from Mediterranean countries. The objectives of the consortium are: (1) to obtain a sound database gathering the state-of-the-art of existing scientific knowledge concerning the fire characteristics of the different forest types and respective species; (2) to develop a set of criteria which can be used to classify forest types in terms of the associated fire hazard and resilience; (3) to define the potential and limitation of the various post-fire management options; (4) to help developing the transfer mechanisms needed between research and its application by end-users. Coordinated by Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves, a research centre of the Instituto Superior de Agronomia in Lisbon, Portugal.
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Title: Núcleo de Investigação Científica de Incêndios Florestais (NICIF) / Centre for Forest Fires Scientific Research [Portugal]
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: NICIF is a Scientific Unit of the University of Coimbra, and carries out research related to the prevention of and the effects of forest fires. The objectives of NICIF include: investigation of forest fires; education of the public (and particularly young people) concerning the importance of the forest, especially with regard to preservation of forests and the prevention of forest fires.
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Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, DataSource]
Publisher:
Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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Title: PiroPinus version 2.0 /
Language: English
Description: PiroPinus is a prescribed burning guide for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands in the form of a spreadsheet, conceived for operational use in the planning and evaluation of hazard reduction burns in natural fuels, i.e. slash from pruning or thinning is not present. It can also be used as a research tool for fire modelling purposes. Potential users are urged to try the guide in other medium- to long-needled pines (P. pinea, P. canariensis, P. radiata, P. nigra, P. halepensis), especially when the understorey is composed of Mediterranean-type species. PiroPinus is a all-in-one user-friendly tool that integrates models based on observed, real-world, fire behaviour and effects. Unlike other available tools, PiroPinus has the ability to: 1. Reflect local stand and fuel conditions in the output; 2. Assess the likelihood of sustained fire spread and quantify marginal burning conditions. Fire modelling systems using properly developed custom fuel models can be used to obtain accurate estimates of fire behaviour. However, such systems perform poorly at the high-end of the moisture content range and are not able to produce site-specific estimates. PiroPinus is composed of several interrelated or stand-alone worksheets for distinct objectives: (1) FUEL. Data entry of basic fuel and stand descriptors to assess fuel load and fire behaviour and effects; (2) RX WIN. Prescription window (general burning conditions); (3) RX DEV. Prescription development, the definition of burning conditions to avoid undesired fire impacts on trees and the forest floor; (4) MOIST. Fuel moisture content, to estimate the moisture contents of surface fine dead fuels and decomposing litter; (5) FIRE. Ignition and fire behaviour, to assess the likelihood of fire spread and quantify fire characteristics; (6) IGN PLAN. Assessment and optimization of area treatment rate; (7) TREES. Fire impact on trees, to assess canopy damage and mortality; (8) FUEL DYN. Fuel dynamics, to estimate fuel consumption and post-burn accumulation; (9) POST-FIRE. Post-burn assessment of fire behaviour and effects; (10) WEATH. Wind speed estimation and Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (for regional planning).
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Title: Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF) / Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications; Centro de Investigación Ecológica y Aplicaciones Forestales
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: CREAF is an institute dedicated to developing basic and applied research on terrestrial ecology. It is a public consortium established by the Catalan Government, the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), the University of Barcelona and the Institute of Catalan Studies (ICE). Major topics covered by CREAF include: Functional ecology of terrestrial ecosystems; Forest dynamics and management; Plant population biology; Ecological effects of global changes; Landscape ecology; Biodiversity and ecological processes; Fire ecology; Soil restoration; Land planning and sustainability. The following services are available via the CREAF webpages: Forest Information System (SIBosC) (Catalan); Land Cover Map (Catalan); Ecological and Forest Inventory (Catalan); search of CREAF publications database.
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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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Title: Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves (CEABN) / Centre for Applied Ecology Prof. Baeta Neves
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: CEABN is a research centre within the Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon. CEABN is located in the old house of Professor Baeta Neves, a forester after whom the centre is named and who pioneered the issue of Nature Conservation in Portugal. The CEABN team is composed of foresters, biologists and landscape architects most of them specialized in natural resource management. CEABN activities can be divided in 5 working areas that present specific objectives: Biodiversity in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems; Wildlife Management; Fire Ecology and Management; Ecological Design and Landscape Architecture; Agro-Environment Education and Dissemination of Research Results.
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Title: Fire Hazard Mapper (User's manual) / GIS tool to produce Fire Hazard maps (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: Fire Hazard Mapper is a software application, which is going to produce fire hazard maps, using as input data concerning structural (fuel models, topography, climate, etc) and daily factors (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed).
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Title: MFM Calculator (User's manual) / GIS interface to daily assess the meteorological parameters and the drought or moisture content (FMC) index (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: MFM Calculator is a GIS software tool, which is calculating the meteorological and fuel moisture components of the fire risk. The tool uses a a combination of Kriging and the inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods to interpolate values of meteorological parameters (air temperature, daily total precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed) from point sources (meteo stations). Further, the tool calculates a modified version of the Keech-Byram index for Mediterranean conditions and a Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) index over a geographic area
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Title: Fuel Mapper (User's manual) / An easy to use tool to recognize and map fuel models (User's manual)
Language: English
Description: Fuel Mapper is a GIS software application, which is going to produce fuel type maps, using as input land cover/vegetation type information and vegetation height data. The output is a fuel type map classified according to a chosen fuel typology (NFFL or Prometheus).
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Title: D3.1-2a Review of knowledge gaps and proposal for fuel data collection and test runs /
Language: English
Description: A review of the different aspects of fuel moisture research was conducted. The following knowledge (research) gaps can be identified: (a) The horizontal spatial variability of dead fuel moisture in relation to vegetation (e.g., stand structure, crown closure, stem density, litter and duff depth, etc.) and topographic characteristics (aspect, slope, soil depth and type, etc.) needs to be measured and modelled in the field. (b) The temporal (diurnal and seasonal) variation in dead and live fuel moisture content as related to changes in meteorological parameters (air relative humidity and temperature, insolation and cloudiness, wind speed and duration, etc) needs to be measured in the field for all the dominant Mediterranean fuel types at the species level, to the extent possible. For fire-stricken geographical regions of the Mediterranean Basin, extensive data bases of seasonal fuel moisture data per species or fuel type must be created and, subsequently, converted through statistical analysis to empirical models of fuel moisture prediction, refined for every species or fuel complex. (c) Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) sorption (adsorption and desorption) curves of dead fuels as a function of air relative humidity and temperature need to be created for the fuels of all the dominant species. (d) The fuel moisture timelag (TL) concept needs to be reassessed and measured in dead fuels from different species in relation to the fuel moisture sorption phase (adsorption or desorption), in order to account for the moisture hysteretic effects of dead fuels during the wetting or drying process. (e) A physical model that predicts canopy (crown) live fuel moisture content variations in terms of stand and tree phenological and physiological characteristics and soil water balance has to be formulated. (f) A comparison between actual measurements of dead fuel moisture with the moisture content of fuel analogues (i.e., fuel moisture sticks) is necessary in order to validate the precision of the analogues in fuel moisture assessment. (g) The relationship between dead and live fuel moisture and drought (prolonged period of high temperatures and low air and soil humidity) needs to be further investigated, and in particular, the response of shrub and tree species moisture content to drought. The use of the newly formed SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) drought index might be useful in the correlation with fuel moisture, in addition to the traditionally used KBDI and Palmer indexes. In view of the expected global warming and climatic change, this research aspect of fuel moisture could be very significant in the future. (h) The moisture of extinction (ME) of dead and live fuels must be measured in the field (in situ) with a long series of ignition experiments in different fuel types and, subsequently, correlated with the existing fuel moisture content and meteorological parameters in the field, into regression and probabilistic models. ME values of the most significant Mediterranean fuel types must be measured in the laboratory and in the field. (i) The condensation (water vapour that originates from the atmosphere in the form of dew on the surface of dead fuels) and the latent heat of vaporisation of free water from the fuel particle surface are two terms that are currently neglected and must be taken into account in future physical models of dead fuel moisture content. (j) The optimal temporal (time) step for monitoring vegetation moisture content (greenness) via satellite imagery needs to be determined in dead and live Mediterranean fuel complexes.
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Title: D3.1-4 Fire occurrence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: First results /
Language: English
Description: Sardinia is one of the most fire-prone regions of Italy. The high incidence of fires in Sardinia constitutes a problem in terms of damages and resources management, consequently, for provisional and operational planning, it’s very important to know the wildfire regime characteristics and their linkage with the determinant factors. The study of the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wildfires and the remote-sensed symphenological variables highlighted the role of temporal NDVI signal as a reliable tool for analyzing ecological processes, going beyond the biophysical significance of single-date NDVI values as proxies to photsyntetic activity. The results obtained show that the simultaneous ordering of symphenological variables and fire regime characteristics, based on the spatial distribution of PNV, is consistent with a climatic control that acts on both phenomena. In an evolving landscape, knowing that the wildfires regime is strictly determined by potential natural vegetation phenology can be helpful for monitoring and predicting fires behaviour under changing climatic scenario. Finally, by providing a phytogeographical framework for characterizing fires, the PNV map can be considered a valuable tool for applying research results to fire management policies, since it takes properly into account the underlying determinant factors.
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Title: D3.1-10 Fire occurence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: final results (merged with D3.1-9) /
Language: English
Description: Fire is a basic ecological factor that contributes to determine vegetation diversity and dynamics in time and space. Fuel characteristics play an essential role in fire ignition and propagation; at the landscape scale fuel availability and flammability are closely related to the vegetation phenology that directly affects wildfire pattern in time and space. In this view, the annual NDVI profiles derived from high temporal resolution satellites, like SPOT Vegetation, represent an effective tool for monitoring the coarse-scale vegetation seasonal timing. The objective of this study thus consists in quantifying the explanatory power of multitemporal NDVI profiles on the fire regime characteristics of the potential natural vegetation (PNV) types of Sardinia (Italy) over a five-year period (2000-2004). The results obtained show a good association between the NDVI temporal dynamics of the PNV of Sardinia and the corresponding fire regime characteristics, emphasizing the role of the bioclimatic timing of the vegetation in controlling the coarse-scale wildfire spatio-temporal distribution of Sardinia. By providing a sound phytogeographical framework for describing different wildfire regimes, PNV maps can thus be considered helpful cartographic documents for fire management strategies at the landscape scale.
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Title: Deliverable D3.1-12 Empirical modelling of fuel flammability and initial fuel propagation, including determination of fuel moisture threshold for fire ignition /
Language: English
Description: This report sums up the fuel flammability experiments (WP 3.1) dedicated to the determination of the thresholds of fuel moisture for fire ignition, and to the assessment of the ignition probability for different dead (i.e. litter) forest fuels in Greece, Spain, Argentina, and France. The probability of ignition has been modelled in for forest fuels through laboratory fires (Cemagref, INIA-CIFOR, MAICh, AUTH and CIEFAP), using different sources of ignitions and different environmental conditions (i.e. nul wind versus windy conditions). The sources of ignition were glowing, flaming, or sparks. The wind was controlled and set as nul or strong. Fuels were chosen as representative of the main natural (e.g. dead leaves and litter duff) and modified (e.g. pine plantations, residuals of fuel treatments) ecosystems of each country. As the main factor controlling ignition, fuel moisture content (FMC) was controlled experimentally along a wide range (generally 5 to more than 50%). The main findings are: (i) the importance of the combination of the source of ignition, the wind speed and the fuel type to assess the ignition. It has been proved that ignition can vary strongly according to this ‘triangle’, with some sources of ignition being especially efficient for some fuel types, and the complex influence of wind that may increase or decrease the ignition success; (ii) the establishment of community- or species-specific logistic models of ignition versus FMC (see Figure below); (iii) the subsequent determination of fuel moisture of extinction for most fuels studied.
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Title: D3.3-1 Review of data structures for fuel database and protocols for fuel description /
Language: English
Description: Our overall goal in this work package can be defined as follows: “the systematic collection, storage and processing of knowledge on fuels for different users, with different needs, at different scales in order to assess the fuel complex and its fire potential from combustion to the landscape level”. We intend to: (1) collect, store and process existing knowledge on: (i) fuel acquisition protocols / fuel sampling methods; (ii) resulting fuel data categories & fuel models; (iii) allocation of fuel data categories & models to different fire behaviour & fire models at different scales. (2) generate, collect, store and process new knowledge on: (i) which fuel data protocol /fuel sampling method for which purpose at which scale? (ii) user needs: which user needs what at which scale, why & when/how often? This can be achieved by developing a knowledge platform with a single, on-line point of access. This will allow fire ecologists, modellers and managers (and eventually the general public) to access information on definitions, techniques for monitoring fuels, key fuel descriptors with regards to fire behaviour and impact and existing fuel models (Table 1). The system will help to harmonize fire control planning and experimental fire procedures across Europe, where many different approaches are in use (see EUFIRELAB report: UNIT2: D-01-02-01/06 http://www.eufirelab.org/). The system should provide a ‘Clearing House’ for data and information relating to fuel. This may be partly through the collection and storage of data in a single integrated system, and partly through the collection of metadata about information that will be stored elsewhere. We also propose to develop a wiki or bliki to which the fire community can contribute.
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Title: D3.4-2 Review of fuel description methods /
Language: English
Description: The scope of this state-of-the-art is to give an overview on existing fuel description methods and their respective field protocols. Wildland fuels characteristics can be viewed as a hierarchy of levels of increasing complexity, from the cell, fuel particle to the fuel complex or stand and landscape level. The emphasis put on each hierarchy of fuel properties in this document will reflect the type of information required, which is, first of all, related to the approach taken to model fire behaviour.
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Title: D4.1-1a Spatial and temporal statistics on wildfire regimes across Europe /
Language: English
Description: An assessment was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different areas in Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Portugal. In this first stage of analysis on fire selectivity, we focused solely on fire ignitions without taking into account the corresponding burned areas. The development of appropriate statistical methods for computing the strength of association between the burned area of wildfires and land cover classes on a coarse-scale basis will be the subject of additional work. The analyzed data sets are composed of: (i) 13377 fire records in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2004, (ii) 1331 fire records in the Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri (Switzerland) during the period 1982-2005, (iii) 250 fire records in the Chalkidiki Peninsula (Macedonia, Greece) during the period 1985-1997, and (iv) 3023 fire records in the Coimbra Region (Portugal).
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Title: D3.4-1 Georeferenced database of representative sites including ecological data /
Language: English
Description: The first part of this deliverable gives an overview of the different study sites in the different countries (France, Greece, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia) involved in fuel description and mapping. The second part of the deliverable is dedicated to the description of the main vegetation types. The third part gives some examples of the plots that are described and some sampling methods, but a more detailed state-of-the-art will be given in D3.4-2. Then, in a fourth part, a list of the available data on the study sites is given. This list is detailed in an annexed table file. Study sites are also georeferenced in a GIS file.
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Title: D4.1-1b Publication describing wildfire regimes distribution in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: The deliverable is composed of four studies for different regions: (1) Analysis of the fire occurrence in the phytoclimatic regions of Sardinia; (2) Analysis of fire occurrences in the vegetation zones of Macedonia, Greece; (3) Assessing the relative fire proneness of different forest types in Portugal; (4) Selective burning of forest vegetation in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland).
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Title: 4.1-2b-39 Publication on the fire proneness of different land use classes in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: This study investigated the fire proneness of different land use classes with specific reference to a case study for the whole of Portugal, and then investigated the relationships between ignitions and land cover for three selected European study areas: (1) Sardinia, Italy; (2) Coimbra District, Portugal; (3) Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri, Switzerland.
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Title: Deliverable .5.1-5 Development of a user friendly GIS interface to daily assess the meteorological parameters and the drought or moisture content (FMC) index - User’s manual /
Language: English
Description: D5.1-5 is a user manual for a GIS tool to calculate the drought index and fuel moisture content. For the calculation of the drought index (Modified KBDI for the Mediterranean conditions) at least three raster datasets are required by the application in order to perform calculations: (a) daily maximum temperature data, (b) daily rainfall data, and (c) mean annual rainfall data. For the calculation of Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) two raster datasets are required by the application in order to perform calculations: (a) Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) data, and (b) Reduced Sample Ratio (RSR) data.
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Title: D5.2-2 Guide for end-users to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: The objective of this guide is to propose methodologies to characterize and map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: D5.3-1 Report on the effects of broad scale and long-term application of prescribed burning on fire risk components /
Language: English
Description: Effect of prescribed burning on the mitigation of fire risk was discussed in fire prone ecosystems of three European countries (Greece, France and Portugal). Two study cases were presented using two different fire modelling approaches, the spatial fire growth model FARSITE and FIRETEC a physically based fire propagation model. This study showed that fuel management with prescribed burning had a significant effect on fire propagation hazard. It needs to be completed with further studies on prescribed burning effects on the other fire risk components such as ignition likelihood or vulnerability (fire effects on trees). First results also showed the need of optimizing the spatial pattern of fire application both when applied extensively on the landscape, and when located on a fuel break network. The first study case concerned a conifer forest located in Kassandra peninsula in northern Greece, which has been affected by a 7120 ha wildfire in August 2006. Prescribed burning effectiveness was assessed by using the FARSITE simulator for comparing fire spread over the landscape before and after prescribed burning application on a network of stripe-shaped fuel-breaks. Analysis showed a significant reduction of fire potential (fireline intensity, flame length and total burned area) as a result of fuel treatments. The second study case concerned a shrubland and woodland mosaic in limestone Provence, France, where prescribed burning has been used as a fuel reduction tool for more than 15 years The effectiveness of prescribed burning was assessed by comparing fire potential (rate of spread, fireline intensity) before and in the years following prescribed burning treatments. Analysis carried out at the stand scale gave valuable information on the immediate potential fire hazard reduction after prescribed burning. In order to estimate the appropriate prescribed burning return interval, two management scenarios were used (i) a fire intensity threshold compatible with efficient and safe fire fighting or (ii) a shrub encroachment threshold easy to assess by forest managers. In both cases, the prescribed burning return interval varied from 2 to 3 years, depending on fuel types. When applying prescribed burning on a 15 years period, fire risk mapping on the whole State forest showed a higher fire risk reduction when using the fire intensity threshold than a fuel encroachment threshold. A third study case in the Portuguese mainland tested an important assumption of the fire paradox: does fuel age have an influence on burn probability and wildfire size? Fire frequency analysis of mapped fire perimeters ≥10 ha (1998-2008) indicated that fire occurrence was weakly to moderately dependent of fuel age. However, contrarily to the usual expectation, age-dependency did not decrease for larger fire size classes (i.e with increasingly extreme fire weather). Finally, we explored the variation in fire size statistics with fuel age. Older fuels (roughly >8 years after burning) were associated to more variable fire sizes, allowing much larger wildfires. From the results we infer that landscapes submitted to a mean prescribed fire return interval of 4 years will not support wildfires larger than 500 ha. However, adequate spatial planning of the treatments is expected to reduce the annual treatment rate. This deliverable contributes to solving the Fire Paradox because it clearly shows how fuel modification can decrease wildfire hazard and severity which is the first specific objective to be addressed in Integrated Wildland Fire Management. The state of the art chapter has shown that several fuel modification techniques, such as mechanical treatments, are available and used in Europe, but it has also demonstrated that prescribed burning although being increasingly used in some countries, still has to be strongly supported with the objective of the wisest complementarities between fuel treatments. Also, prescribed burning is the approach based on the paradox of fire, reducing fuels strategically before they can be used by wildfires, thus decreasing wildfire risk and severity.
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Title: D6.4-1 Report on the type of data collection /
Language: English
Description: The target of this document is to analyze the type of data used and the features and the feasibility of a system allowing a friendly availability of results given by the FIRE PARADOX centralized application software for fires propagation simulation, running on a remote dedicated server. With this system, defining a customized peripheral equipment, FIRE PARADOX can be tested on the field to verify the correctness of the defined model. Inputs requested by the remote application server to provide this simulation are: (1) Geo-reference data for fire application points; (2) Vegetation and Morphology Maps; (3) Meteorological parameters as (ground wind speed, ground wind direction, air temperature, air relative humidity).
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Title: D8.2-1 Requirements concerning aerial observation /
Language: English
Description: This document about the aerial observation is a synthesis of needs, technical possibilities and constraints.
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Title: D10.1-1a-28 Survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are a major problem for many European societies threatening human lives and property with disastrous impacts particularly at the wildland-urban interface. Furthermore, this issue has changed greatly in recent years and increasingly the reduction of wildfire hazard and the sustainable development of natural and managed ecosystems in Europe require new practices in wildland fire management, such as prescribed burning and suppression fire, together with increasing the public and political awareness through knowledge and technology transfers. This report is aimed to help solving the fire paradox by a better learning and training in the wise use of fire. We have accomplished a detailed survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire. This review includes several countries: Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Morocco, Italy, France, Germany, and Chile. We have analyzed the official degrees concerned with wildland fire issues with special emphasis towards medium and higher levels of education (college and universities). This subject is mainly addressed in Forestry majors and related fields (i.e., environmental sciences). Often, the “wise use of fire” topic is only a small part of the wildland fire content. We have also reviewed the education addressing worker levels. This includes vocational education (for young people to get ready for the job market in “vegetation and fire management”) and internal agency education (specifically set up to training employees already in an organization or agency, i.e., firefighter department). The later are mostly short courses taught by vegetation or fire managers within the agency. Companies working for the administration also develop these short courses for their employees. In these wildland fire courses, we seldom find “fire use” as a topic. As a result, we propose a set of actions in order to promote the wise use of fire, to allow more tools (i.e., suppression fire use, prescribed burning use) for both vegetation and fire managers, and simultaneously helping to solve the fire paradox. The main proposals are a) to display, in Fire Intuition site (http://fireintuition.efi.int), the academic education and training programs that are available in the present about Suppression Fire and Fuel management. The objective is to make these informations more accessible to the general public and more specifically to prospective students and professional; b) to study how to set up a comprehensive certification process in fire management and to fire workers’ proficiency. In this way, we can get something alike the “red card” certification in USA and Canada that has helped them enormously in large fire conflagrations. In those situations, many people is involved from very diverse agencies and under a single Incident Commander. c) to promote within many universities and vocational schools the “fire paradox concept”, d) to educate and training in fire science and management, e) to promote the exchange of both instructors and students among universities and vocational schools from different countries or regions. Some are doing fine in this regard already. f). to promote an international master degree in Wildland Fire Management (a so called FireMaster proposal has been launch in this direction already) aimed to train and provide the best professionals (fire managers) ever to address this on going challenge of wildland fire damages and scares. In short we propose to promote the wise use of fire to help towards solving the fire paradox.
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Title: D10.1-2 Metadata developed on the existing academic and professional training material related to forest fire. /
Language: English
Description: The aim of this deliverable is to create a metadata-base of the existing academic and professional training material and courses related to forest fires and to organize them within the consortium of FIRE PARADOX. This deliverable deals with Learning Object Metadata (LOM) creation and manipulation. This metadata would provide a useful tool for different purposes such as the on-line part of a master degree in wildland fire science and management. Learning Object Metadata is a data model encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning. The purpose of learning object metadata is to support the reusability of learning objects, to aid discoverability, and to facilitate their interoperability, usually in the context of online learning management systems. LOM standards define the hierarchy of data elements for learning objects description. At the top level of the hierarchy are nine categories, which are described in details in this deliverable. For each data element, LOM specifies a name, explanation, size, example value, data type, and other key details. The “RELOAD Editor”, a Java application, was selected to create learning object metadata. The installation of the software, the metadata file creation, the metadata entering and the functionalities of this editor are described in this deliverable. Furthermore, the procedure for metadata indexing and storage is illustrated.
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Title: D11.1-1 Review of main sources of communication on fire and natural disasters in Europe /
Language: English
Description: The goal of the deliverable D11.1.1 is to make a review of main sources of communication. So this report tries to answer mainly the following question: who diffuses information on fires and natural disasters? This report is concerned by describing the main transmitters of information in the field of wildfires and natural disasters. The structure is as follows: - Presentation of the main theoretical hypothesis and fundamental research axes which have been chosen to guide our research; - Investigation with the partners of the Fire paradox consortium and the main findings; - Search for reports produced on the aspect of communication in the field of natural disasters and wildfires, including short summaries of these reports.
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Title: Fire Paradox Publications /
Language: English
Description: List with all the publications produced by the project partners within the Fire Paradox project period in the following fields: Forest fuel characterization and mapping; Fire experiments: combustion, ignition and flammability; Fire behaviour modelling and simulation; Fire ecology; Fire patterns and the fire regime; Fire management and fire policies, and Fire Paradox overviews; Prescribed burning; Fire pre-suppression and suppression; Fire and the Wildland-Urban Interface; Communication on fire.
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Title: D2.1-4 Measurements of thermal degradation, ignition and combustion on representative Boreal and Mediterranean fuels /
Language: English
Description: The work presented in this report is a part of the research effort done to improve the knowledge on the thermal degradation of forest fuels. The understanding of these processses is of vital importance for the development of physical fire behaviour models . Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are thermal analysis techniques that provide information on the thermal behaviour of different fuel samples and these data may facilitate the better understanding of the mechanisms of ignitability and combustibility of forest fuels with different chemical composition. The thermal degradation of 10 forest species common in the Mediterranean region has been compared using TGA and DSC techniques. Almost all the tested species demonstrated similar pyrolitic behaviour, except Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Heat Release Rate (HRR) of a fuel is among the most important parameters for understanding combustion process, fire characteristics and propagation rates. It serves to define parameters such as flame geometry and temperature fields. In a previous work, different partners with different bench-scale equipments to measure HRR curves as well as concentrations of the different gaseous by-products of the fuel combustion put in common their expertise testing common samples. This common work and conclusions about experimental conditions to test forest fuel in bench-scale calorimeters was presented in a previous document (deliverable "D2.1-1 Methods for the experimental study combustion adapted to forest fuels and recommendations for modelling"). In this report some result obtained by a Mass Loss Calorimeter with an open-path FTIR spectroscopic system in Pinus pinea and Cistus laurifolius are presented to study the influence on the HRR, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves of parameters like the fuel moisture content or the bulk density of the tested sample. Besides, a Flame Propagation Apparatus has been used to apply oxygen consumption calorimetry for HRR and a FTIR has been used to measure gas concentrations of combustion products in smoke. Results on several pine needles (analyzing flow and species influences) and boreal moss are presented. A Flame Propagation Apparatus (FPA) joined to a FTIR gas analyzer is used to continue previous studioes on pine needles in order to better understand the different regimes for the combustion dynamics of forest fuels. Also Boreal moss has been tested as a new fuel common in Northern Europe. The aim was to investigate the possible differences in behaviour between this fuel and pine needles.
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Title: D4.4-1 Database of market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database on the market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The data has the following categories: (i) Timber; (ii) Non-wood products; (iii) Hunting; (iv) Fire extinction costs; (v) Reforestation costs. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
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Title: D4.4-2 Database on non-market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database of studies on the non-market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, and Spain.
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to Characterize and to Map Wildland Urban Interface. Part1- State of the art on the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 1 provides an overview of the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: Fire Paradox Fuel Manager /
Language: English
Description: The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a computer software integrated in the data processing chain between the European data and knowledge base on fuels (Fire Paradox Fuel Database) and the 3D physical-based fire propagation models. From a fire manager's point of view, vegetation is not only a conglomerate of plants, but it is also combustible organic material that holds a potential fire risk. It is therefore of great interest to assess the effects of silvicultural measures and fuel treatments to appraise their efficiency on fire hazard reduction. Within the Fire Paradox project such a fuel and fire effects assessment system has been developed. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager enables users to analyse the relationships between vegetation characteristics, fire behaviour and post-fire impact on vegetation. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a key application in the fire modelling process with the following major objectives: (1) to generate vegetation scenes in 3D to be used as input data for fire behaviour modelling; (2) to visualize fire effects on shrubs and trees; (3) to simulate post fire vegetation succession coupled with a plant growth model. The software has been developed on the Capsis (Computer-aided projection of strategies in silviculture) platform for modelling forest dynamics and stand growth. Capsis is a tool for forestry researchers, forest managers and educators.
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Title: Deliverable D9.1-4-1000 Guidelines for prescribed burning for the specific vegetation types assessed within the FIRE PARADOX community /
Language: English
Description: In this paper guidelines for prescribed burning inside pine stands are provided for Southern Africa. Where applicable, these guidelines have been extended to Mediterranean countries in Europe, where pine stands are growing under near-similar conditions, in related natural vegetation bases. It was determined that - where pine trees were established in dynamic grasslands - fire can be applied without damage to the trees when the trees are still relatively young, but that is not the case when pine trees are growing inside a shrubland vegetation base. In the case of the latter existence of a significant percentage of the base vegetation present, may force postponement of the earliest burning date to a stage when tree crown canopies have suppressed most of this vegetation. Subsequently the degree of crown canopy closure was found to be the major influencing factor in determining the degree of difficulty of prescribed burning inside pine stands: The closer the tree crown canopy, the easier it will be to apply fire with an acceptable degree of safety. Adversely, it was determined that the more dominant natural vegetation (particularly shrubland) was present inside pine stands, the more difficult it will be to apply prescribed burning inside stands without damage to the trees, and that tree mortality could be possible (de Ronde et al. 1990; de Ronde et al. 2004b). Photoseries, forest floor classifications and fuel classifications have been identified as useful fuel-assessment tools for the application of prescribed fire with confidence and - where these do not exist at a regional scale - the development of such fire management tools is strongly recommended (de Ronde, 2008a). The relative role of cambium damage and tree crown scorch have also been presented in this paper, by species, vegetation base, tree age and tree growth rate (tree size). Recommendations have also been provided how to restrict fire damage to trees under various burning conditions and tree stand characteristics. These recommendations were also extended to certain regions within some Mediterranean countries (de Ronde, 1988; de Ronde et al., 1990).
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Title: D3.1-1 Review of existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characteristics /
Language: English
Description: Fuel moisture, that is "the moisture percentage of fuel, usually measured by oven-drying a sample and calculating the ratio of dry and moist samples" (according to the EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01 "Methods for wildland fuel description and modelling: A state of the art") is a critical parameter that affects fire ignition, fire behaviour as well as the impacts of fire. Fuel moisture content is a necessary input for all existing physical, semi-physical and empirical fire behaviour prediction models. In addition, fuel moisture content is a main component of most fire danger rating systems. From the operational point of view, fuel moisture content estimates are also required for prescribed burning (planning and use) and for suppression activities. On the other hand, the characterization of fuel beds, defined as "individual fuel particles organized in defined proportions and structural configurations" (EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01), has also been pointed out as one of the keys for the assessment of potential fire behaviour and effects, related with both wildland fire prevention and fighting. Therefore, fire scientists as well as fire managers require specific information concerning fuel moisture content and fuel bed characteristics, as it has also been pointed out in Fire Paradox D3.3-1. In this frame, the aim of this deliverable (3.1-1) is to give an overview on existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characterization. To achieve this goal, a search was conducted through Internet, EuFireLab documentation and other literature, and a questionnaire requesting information on the databases for fuel moisture or fuel bed characterization was sent to all members of the Fire Paradox Module 3. A total of five positive answers (XG-CIFAL, Cemagref, University of Thessaloniki, Forest Research Institute of Warsaw and University of Edinburgh) was received.
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to characterize and to map wildland urban interface. Part 2- Methods developed in France, Spain and Greece. Application of the different methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces in Sardinia /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 2 describes methods developed in France, Spain and Greece to characterize and map the wildland urban interface. The three methods were then used to characterize and map the wildland urban interface in Sardinia.
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Title: Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe /
Language: English
Description: Prescribed burning is the planned application of fire to achieve forest and wildland management goals. The practice of prescribed burning demands skills and experience and is always under public scrutiny. The wise use of fire should maximize the benefits of burning while avoiding or minimizing its negative impacts. Consequently, prescribed burning is framed by land management goals and site-specific treatment objectives and is conditioned by both environmental and social restrictions. The decision-making and planning process can thus benefit from decision-support tools that are expected to expand and strengthen the technical proficiency of the practitioners. The inception and adoption of prescribed burning by managers and management organizations is relatively new in Europe and dates back to the early 1980s. The use of prescribed burning is geographically restricted and its potential to manage wildlands is still largely unfulfilled, especially in forested areas. The political and socio-economic environment is decisive, but there is a need for more basic knowledge and operational guidelines to assist prescribed burning programs. The FIRE PARADOX project directed most of its effort to technological development, training and dissemination. As one of the outcomes, this handbook compiles, organizes and synthesizes the information — both qualitative and quantitative — relevant to burning prescriptions in European ecosystems, i.e. the conditions desired for the burn and that will fulfil the pre-defined treatment objectives. The conceptual framework to plan, carry out and evaluate a burn operation in Figure 1 is implicit in the handbook. Knowledge that was dispersed or needed to be formalized is aggregated and digested. The handbook has been developed by: (1) Examining the available technical information, i.e. burning guides and best practices (e.g. Vega et al. 2001, Fernandes et al. 2002, Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department 2008); (2) Collecting prescriptions from the agencies and individuals involved in prescribed burning management or research in Europe; (3) Collecting information from the FIRE PARADOX prescribed burning demonstration sites; (4) Using models of fire behaviour and effects to generate burn prescriptions to achieve more generic or more specific treatment goals. The handbook gathers prescriptions from all around Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden). The environments range from subtropical (Canary islands) to boreal (Sweden). The information is organized and presented in a hierarchy that considers vegetation type, country or region, and management objective. Most data respects to the application of fire to decrease fuel hazard or to manage habitats for pastoral or nature conservation purposes in diverse types of shrubland and pine woodland. Included in the handbook are ranges for the desired weather and moisture conditions and fire behaviour and effects, as well as ignition patterns and the return interval for the treatments. Two types of prescriptions are presented, respectively: (1) to achieve a broad goal, e.g. renew pastures; or (2) to attain a specific treatment objective, usually defined in quantitative terms, e.g. reduce fuel load by 70%. The technological solutions to plan prescribed fire operations vary across Europe. General burning windows consisting of ranges in weather conditions or in fire danger rating indexes (like in Sweden, Germany and Portugal) are commonplace. In Catalonia, Spain, six standard prescriptions are individualized based on fuel availability and wind speed. USDA Forest Service fire simulation tools are used in Spain and Portugal to prepare site-specific prescriptions, which include sets of values (minimum, preferred, maximum) for weather conditions, fuel moisture contents, fire behaviour characteristics and selected fire effects. In Portugal, the PiroPinus tool (Fernandes 2003) was developed to assist in planning and evaluating the results of prescribed underburning in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands. Prescribed burning practitioners are the main target of the ‘Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe’ and can benchmark their practice against the recommendations, familiarize with and try prescriptions developed elsewhere for the same objective and provide input towards improvement and refinement. In the course of exchanges between regions and countries, this handbook is expected to constitute a rapid reference guide for the ‘outsiders’. Educational organizations and environmental consultants will also benefit. The handbook will naturally find application in prescribed burning training and outreach, and can provide a framework to plan research on fire ecology topics. We expect that this handbook will contribute both to disseminate and to improve the wise use of fire across Europe.
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Title: Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina) / Fire behaviour in grassland ecological site 'media loma', western Chaco region (Argentina)
Language: Spanish
Description: Fire behavior, considered a part of fire ecology, is together with fire prevention one of the two components of the ´fire triangle´ currently used as a basis for fire management and control. We assessed the fire behavior in a grassland located in the midland range ecological site in the Chaco region, northwestern Argentina. The site of the experiments was the ´La María´Experimental ranch, INTA Santiago del Estero Research Station, (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E). Fire was applied in two study sites in 6 plots each. Fine fuel load, botanical composition, and fine fuel bulk density were estimated by sampling. Fire behavior was assessed by estimating forward rate of spread and flame length. These data were analysed using ANOVA with study site as independent variable. Correlation among variables was assessed using the Kendall’s ô correlation coefficient. Study sites presented a different botanical composition: plots were either dominated by Trichloris pluriflora (E.) Fournier, or by Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam.) Kuntze. Plant of these species possess different proportion of stems and leaves. These facts significantly affected fine fuel load, bulk density (p > F = 0,0001 in both cases) and the forward rate of spread (p > F = 0.0001). The latter was 27,62 m*min-1 in study site 1, where the first species dominated; and 21 m*.min-1 in study site 2, where the second dominated, respectively. Average flame length was 3,5 m, but reached 6 m when volatile shrubs ignited and participated in the propagation of fire. Correlations among forward rate of spread and fuel load with bulk density was positive and significant (p < 0,0001), but was not significant in the case of flame length. Fires were of high intensity and move fast and need blacklines or other indirect measures for control.
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