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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Rangendingen /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Rangendingen, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary dry calcarious grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: D7.4-2 Review on CO2 emissions mitigation through prescribed burning options to apply prescribed fires within the frame of the Kyoto protocol a case study in Patagonia /
Language: English
Description: Although wildland fire is known as a natural force that has shaped most vegetation types of the world, its mismanagement during the last century has lead to more frequent and catastrophic fires at present times. Apart from the concern raised globally on how to deal with this problem, wildland fires are also being recognized as one of the sources of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG´s) that influence global climate change. One of the techniques used to reduce the risk of destructive wildfires (i.e. prescribed burning), has also the theoretical potential of mitigating carbon emissions, and effectively contributes to the efforts proposed as part of the Clean Development Mechanism within the Kyoto protocol. In order to apply this concept to a real case, a study was set in pine afforestations of the Andean region of Patagonia, Argentina, with the objective of evaluating the potential of prescribed burns for reducing GHG’s emissions. The scenario was established for a period of ten years, in which prescribed burns were compared to the traditional management scheme, which included the probability of annual average of wildfire occurrence based on available wildfire statistics. The two contrasting situations were: 1) Managed afforestations, affected by the annual average rate of wildfires occurred in the same type of afforestations in the region, without prescribed burning, and 2) Same as 1) but with the application of prescribed burning. In order to estimate carbon stocks, and CO2 removals and emissions, we followed the directions given for GHG´s inventories on the AFOLU sector of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data of afforested area, thinnings, and biomass growth were taken from previous surveys in the study area. Downed dead wood and litter (Forest Fuel Load, FFL) was estimated adjusting equations fitted to those fuels, based on field data. Results show that comparing the two scenarios, prescribed burning reduced CO2 emissions by 44% as compared to the situation without prescribed burnings. Prescribed burning emissions represented about 12% of the total emissions (prescribed burning plus wildfires). Furthermore, avoided wildfires by prescribed burnings allowed an additional 78% GHG's emission mitigation due to extra biomass growth, and its emission mitigation could be kept positive by increasing the treated area several times the used here. In summary, prescribed burnings probed to be a management practice that could not only help prevent wildfires to achieve productive objectives, but also an efficient tool to mitigate worldwide GHG’s emissions.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_St. Johann /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in St. Johann, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary dry calcarious grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Systems for Environmental Management (SEM) / SEM
Language: English
Description: Systems for Environmental Management (SEM) is a Montana nonprofit research and educational corporation. They are specialized in issues concerning wildland fire planning, behavior, fuel, weather, and effects. Publications and software packages developed in cooperation with the Fire Sciences Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station are posted on the website. All items are freely available to download and use.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Cloppenburg /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Cloppenburg, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was control of forest succession and improvement of Calluna vulgaris habitat. A simple management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Grupo de Fogos Florestais / Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Forest Fire Group
Language: Portuguese
Description: The Forest Fire Group is an activity of the Department of Forest and Landscape at the Universidad de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD). The Forest Fire Group was established in 1983 and has undertaken research in fuel and fire behavior modeling, fire risk and fire danger index, preventive silviculture and fuel management, controlled fire, adaptation and vulnerability of forests to fire.
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Title: Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center (LLC) / LLC
Language: English
Description: The LLC is an innovative and progressive organizational learning resource center based in Arizona, USA. The Center actively promotes a learning culture to enhance and sustain safe and effective work practices in the wildland fire community. The Center provides opportunities and resources to foster collaboration among all fire professionals, facilitates their networks, provides access to state-of-the-art learning tools, and links learning to training. A library, videos, incident reviews, information on organizational learning, newsletter, advances in fire practices, and much other information are available on the site.
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Title: D7.1-1.1-36 List and classification of the existing EU and national forest legislation and national policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires /
Language: English
Description: A compilation and classification was made of existing regulations and policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires, both in North African countries and for Europe. Since wildland fire issues are mainly dealt within national forest policies, this analysis has mainly focused on the national scale, although the existence of different multilevel governance structures make it necessary to address the issue on a regional level in decentralized countries. Thus, three types of regulatory texts are identified as relevant for the Integrated Wildland Fire Management: (i) Basic Forest Legislation, (ii) Basic Wildland Fire Legislation, and (iii) Specific Legislation on the Use of Fire. Concerning policy instruments, two planning documents have been considered: National/Regional Forest Programmes and specific plans concerning defence and protection against wildfires. Its typology depends on (i) the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies, and (ii) the responsibility allocation within each national governance structure (situation of decentralization). The compilation and classification of these documents was based on the information obtained from a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission, and on other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The review of existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments in 21 EU countries and three North African countries has identified the following key issues: (1) The existence of a range of definitions related to wildland fire management, with different meanings in different European settings as well as differing legal terminology for these terms. (2) The importance of the structure of national governance. The degree of decentralization will determine where the responsibilities are allocated and how they are developed. Therefore, the structure of national governance will be one of the main factors guiding future assessment of national forest policies. (3) The influence of the European Union in national forest policies through EU regulations dealing with specific aspects of the forest sector or forest-related issues, as a complement to national activities, where necessary. (4) There is a great diversity among the regulatory texts and policy instruments related to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires in European and North African countries, due to the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies and the different wildfire risk in each national/regional context. (5) Few of the analysed countries have a specific wildland fire law or regulation. Most of them deal with wildfires within their Forest Laws, through a specific chapter dedicated to wildfires (Southern countries) or in a general chapter on forest protection (Northern countries). (6) There are some countries that do not yet have a specific policy for wildland fires, but progress on forest policy is noted in all the countries included in the report. (7) The compilation of policy instruments shows that 12 of 17 countries considered in the document have a specific wildland fire plan or strategy; these are often linked to national forest policy. (8) Regulation of the use of fire in Europe, although extensive, has focused almost exclusively on the regulation of activities that involve the use of fire in wildland areas or close to these areas (i.e. fire for recreation, alimentation purposes or traditional rural practices). However, fire use for forest management, wildfire prevention and for wildfire suppression receives little attention in legislation. When addressed, it is usually authorized but not regulated, possibly due to the recent development of these perspectives in the continent.
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Title: D3.3.2 / deliverable
Language: English
Description: The first stage of the fuel database is presented.
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Title: D7.4-1 Review report on emissions mitigation through prescribed burning /
Language: English
Description: Forest fires have the potential to feed back to global climate change because of the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The amount of biomass burning over the past 100 years has increased dramatically and is now recognised as a significant global source of atmospheric emissions. The techniques that are used to reduce the risk of destructive wildfires, such as prescribed burning, also have the potential of mitigating carbon emissions in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The current study reviews the importance of accounting for emissions from forest fires and shows that prescribed burning can be a means of reducing carbon emissions. However, very limited data are available on European scale to fully explore its potential. The limited studies suggest that significant reductions can be obtained and that prescribed burning can be a viable option for mitigating CO2 emissions in fire prone countries. The present analyses show that the potential reduction attained by such techniques as a percentage of the reduction in emissions required by the Kyoto Protocol varies from country to country. Out of the 33 countries investigated, in only one the requirements of the Kyoto could potentially be achieved by applying prescribed burning, while three other nations showed a potential reduction of 4-8% of the Kyoto requirements. The majority showed a reduction of less than 2%. This implies that prescribed burning can only make a significant contribution in those countries with high fire occurrence. Over a five year period the emissions from wildfires in the European region were estimated to be 11 million tonnes of CO2 per year, while with prescribed burning application this was approximately six million tonnes, a potential reduction of almost 50%. This means that for countries in the Mediterranean region it may be worthwhile to account for the reduction in emissions obtained when such techniques are applied.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Web Site / www.fireparadox.org
Language: English
Description: The main FIREPARADOX project web site. This site is used for dissemination of project information and management and reporting for the project partners
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Title: Greek Fires European Solidarity /
Language: English
Description: Video illustrating coordination of fire fighting assistance to Greece by other EU members during the 2007 fire season through the Civil Protection mechanism
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,AudioVisual,MovingImage,Flash Video [.flv]][Resource Types and Formats, AudioVisual, MovingImage, Flash Video [.flv]]
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Title: Regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire / Fire Paradox Leaflet 2006
Language: English
Description: An Innovative Approach of Integrated Wildland Fire Management Regulating the Wildfire Problem by the Wise Use of Fire: Solving the Fire Paradox
Date: 27/02/2008
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Braderup-Sylt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Braderup on the island Sylt, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlanticl Calluna heathland. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: World Fire Atlas /
Language: English
Description: The AATSR (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer) World Fire Atlas (WFAA) provides global monthly maps of fires. Since February 2006 the WFAA has been processed in Near Real Time. Monthly maps are available for the current year. Annual maps are available for other years from 1995.
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Title: COST Action FP0701. Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe /
Language: English
Description: Cost Action FP0701, Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe, is a network of researchers and practitioners working in the field of fire ecology and forest management from all around Europe. The action commenced in May 2008 and will continue for four years. The main objective of this Action is to develop and disseminate scientifically-based decision criteria for post-fire management, applicable from stand-level to landscape-level planning. The short-term expected result is to increase the scientific basis for undertaking appropriate post-fire management practices in Southern Europe; the long-term expected result is to improve the effectiveness in restoring burned areas and reduce fire hazard in European forests and landscapes.
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, DataSource]
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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, DataSource]
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Braderup-Sylt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Braderup on the island Sylt, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlanticl Calluna heathland. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Laboratorio di ecologia applicata / Laboratory of applied ecology
Language: English
Description: Research activities of the Laboratory of applied ecology comprise modeling, fire ecology, habitats and flora, plant ecology and animal ecology. The fire ecology field covers post-fire succession, fire statistical analysis, and fire fighting planning.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Sweden_Kvibille /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Kvibille, Sweden: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was to restore the oak dominated stands (Quercus robur/petrea) as an open forest landscape to induce the occurrence of fire promoted and fire dependent species and to control late successional shade tolerant species. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Haltern /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Haltern am See, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was control of forest succession and improvement of Calluna vulgaris habitat. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Drover Heathland /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Cloppenburg, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was control of forest succession and regeneration of Calluna vulgaris. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Zschorno /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Zschorno, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was control of forest succession to maintain open habitat structures of Black Grouse, and the creation of fuelbreaks (bufferzones) between pine stands to improve wildfire control. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Lueneburg /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in the Lueneburg Heath, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary dry calcarious grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Morsum-Sylt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Morsum on the island Sylt, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlantic Calluna heathlands. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Land use change interactions with fire in Mediterranean Landscapes (LUCIFER) / LUCIFER
Language: English
Description: The project aimed to assess the interactions between fire and landscape structures in fire-prone areas in Mediterranean countries. Fire effects on the ecosystems and their influence on species changes were evaluated. Based on past landscapes and fire incidence, models of landscape change and its significance for species dynamics were developed to evaluate fire risk and other threats to the ecosystem. The project ran from 1996 to 2000.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Fischweier /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Fischweier, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary fresh till wet grassland vegetation and suppression of the establishment of woody plants . A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: EU-FIRE: Innovative optoelectronic and acoustic sensing technologies for large scale forest fire long term monitoring / EU-FIRE
Language: English
Description: The EU-FIRE project has the objective to design a new forest fires monitoring system able to guarantee accurate and continuous surveillance and forecasting, immediate detection of fire beginnings, monitoring of the fire evolution, and timely exchange of information from fire fronts. The EU-FIRE integrated prototype is based on 3 components: a microphones system for volumetric scanning; fibre optic senscors networks for the detection of changes in the parameters associated to fire, such as temperature and gaseous emissions; and a Local Control Unit able to integrate data from acoustic and optoelectronic sensors. The results will lead, in the mid-term, to the provision of improved performance detection systems, and, in the long term, to the establishment of a common European model for forest fire monitoring.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Bernau /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Bernau, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary high mountain grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Sweden_Stormyran-Lommyran /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Ånge, Sweden: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of Boreal forest, recreation of fire prone stand structure and reintroduction of natural disturbances. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed_burning_demonstration_site_Spain_Sierra Alta /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in San Lorenzo de Calatrava, Central Spain: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, ignition pattern, site description, effects, and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was fuel load reduction of a pine forest. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) / FEPS
Language: English
Description: The Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) is a user-friendly computer program designed for scientists and resource managers with some working knowledge of Microsoft Windows applications. The software manages data concerning consumption, emissions and heat release characteristics of prescribed burns and wildland fires, including the amount and fuel moisture of various fuel strata, hourly weather, and a number of other factors. FEPS can be used for most forest, shrub, and grassland types in North America and the world. Download and teaching materials are available on the website.
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Title: National Interagency Prescribed Fire Training Center (PFTC) / PFTC
Language: English
Description: The PFTC is made up of, and supported by different interagency partners in the US. Its mission is to provide opportunities for federal, state, local, and tribal government agencies and other organizations to build skills and knowledge of prescribed fire, with an emphasis on field experience. It is a program blending maximum field prescribed burning experience with a flexible curriculum of classroom instruction on topics of interest to prescribed fire practitioners. Participants hailing from the US and international agencies receive instruction in fire behavior, firing techniques and high reliability organizing.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Bordelum /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Bordelum and Langenhorn, North Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of continental Calluna heathlands through suppression of succession. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute (NAFRI) / NAFRI
Language: English
Description: The National Advanced Fire and Resource Institute is a national level center dedicated to developing and enhancing learning experiences. NAFRI serves the interagency wildland fire community through the development and implementation of fire, fuels, resource, and incident management skills and educational processes.
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Title: Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP) / CIEFAP
Language: Spanish
Description: CIEFAP is a scientific, educational institution which aims to foster the development of the region by the sustainable use of its native forests and plantations, the preservation of the environment and the promotion of ecotourism through knowledge generation and transfer. The study area of the Center is the Andean zone of Patagonia Argentina. Fire research is undertaken within the four thematic axes of conservation and forest management, forest protection, territorial planning, and wood technology.
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Title: Firewise /
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The national Firewise Communities program is a multi-agency effort involving homeowners, community leaders, planners, and others to protect people, property, and natural resources from the risk of wildland fire before a fire starts. The Firewise Communities approach emphasizes community responsibility for planning in the design of a safe community as well as effective emergency response, and individual responsibility for safer home construction and maintenance. The website contains a variety of interactive modules, community stories, publications, a library, network, learning center etc. People who live or go on vacation in fireprone areas of North America are informed how to become a firewise individual and get acquainted with the challenges of living in the wildland-urban-interface.
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Title: Monitoring Forests at the Management Unit Level for Fire Prevention and Control (FIREGUARD) / FIREGUARD
Language: English
Description: The project addresses fire prevention and control in the Mediterranean region. The main focus is on long-term fire prevention. Fire prevention, pre-suppression, and suppression all require information on fuel characteristics (e.g. composition, structure, spatial distribution), infrastructure, and terrain (topography). This information is designed for the district and sector forest unit level but is capable of being integrated to higher levels, as necessary. An Internet application to assist forest managers in long-term fire prevention management was created.The project finished and ran from 2002 to 2005.
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Title: Design of a frame work for producing and providing earth observation based information services for forest fires management at European and local levels (Control Fire Sat) / Control Fire Sat Project
Language: English
Description: The aim of the CFS Project was the provision of real-time Earth Observation data to be used in forest fire management. A pre-operational warning and information system was developed. CFS delivered four customized products derived from NOAA-AVHRR data: daily fire risk maps; a fire detection and warning system operating during night hours; monitoring of the fire front evolution during a fire event, and a near real-time web delivery system for the previous products. Activities covered the summer seasons of 1998 and 1999 for Greece, Spain and France. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Mongolia_Tunkel /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Mandal Soum, Tunkhel village in Mongolia: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, ignition pattern, site description, effects, and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was fuel load reduction for demonstration in a Pine forest with grass and herbs. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning as a tool for the Mediterranean region - a management approach (FIRE TORCH) / FIRE TORCH
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The global objective of the FIRE TORCH project was to improve the prescribed burning decision making process, creating the operational basis that will support an extensive use of the technique. The four general objectives were: to identify and analyze the opportunities for prescribed fire development; to model prescribed burning environmental effects and operational know-how; to develop a Decision Support System focusing on the different stages of a burning operation: prescription, execution and evaluation; and to contribute to the technique diffusion and practitioners training. As results a field guide for managers to appraise information necessary to conduct a prescribed burn, and a training and decision support system consisting of integrated software tools were developed. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: CONSUME /
Language: English
Description: CONSUME is a user-friendly software application designed for resource managers and scientists with some working knowledge of Microsoft Windows applications. Land managers and researchers input fuel characteristics, lighting patterns, fuel conditions, and meteorological attributes, then CONSUME outputs fuel consumption and emissions by combustion phase. The output is formatted to feed other models and provide usable outputs for burn plan preparation and smoke management requirements. CONSUME can be used for most forest, shrub and grasslands in North America. Downloads, training and a user’s manual are available on the website.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Luetjenholm /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Zschorno, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlantic Calluna heathlands. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: FEIS : Fire Effects Information System Database / FEIS
Language: English
Description: FEIS summarizes and synthesizes research about living organisms in the United States — their biology, ecology, and relationship to fire. Other fire effects reports on fauna, flora, soil and water, air, and nonnative invasive plants are available on the site.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Oberstetten /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Oberstetten, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Brueggen-Bracht /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Brueggen-Bracht, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was control of forest succession and improvement of Calluna vulgaris habitat. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Laboratorio de Sensores Teledeteccion e Imagen IR / Laboratorio de Sensores Teledeteccion e Imagen IR
Language: Spanish
Description: The laboratory of remote sensing and infrared images is a research group integrated in the Physics Departement of the University Carlos III of Madrid. The research focuses on the field of IR remote sensing and its application for the design of infrared sensors. An emphasis of the research projects is in the field of wildland fires.
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Title: Working on Fire / WoF
Language: English
Description: Working on Fire is a South African, government-funded, multi-partner organisation focused on Integrated Fire Management and veld and wild firefighting. Activities are performed in the fields of fire awareness, fire prevention, prescribed burning, resource sharing and co-ordination, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire damage rehabilitation at local, regional and national level. Working on Fire has achieved significant successes as a poverty alleviation programme by providing fire fighting training.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Mildstedt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Mildstedt, North Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlantic Calluna heathland.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Ettenheimmuenster /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Ettenheimmuenster, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of ordinary grassland and suppression of the establishment of woody plants. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: EuroFire /
Language: English
Description: EuroFire is an international partnership that has developed a competency based training system for wildfire and prescribed fire management. The outputs of the new European-wide, multi-lingual, on-line training resources include: competency standards, training modules, illustrations and general guidance on a competency based training system. The system incorporates examples of good practices from Europe and around the world. The key target user groups for the EuroFire training materials are: fire-fighters, the rural and land-based sector, industry organisations and education and training institutions. EuroFire was a 2 year project running from 2006 to 2008.
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Title: Fire Ecology Database /
Language: English
Description: Fire Ecology database is a unique resource for locating a broad range of fire-related information. Literature on control of wildfires as well as applications of prescribed burning is included. Although international in scope, the database emphasizes the southeastern United States, the USA, and North America. Historical and current works are included. Bibliographic sources include journal articles, books, state and federal documents, conference proceedings, magazines and newspaper articles. A comprehensive Fire Ecology Thesaurus is available to be downloaded.
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Title: International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF) / IAWF
Language: English
Description: The IAWF is a non-profit, professional association representing members of the global wildland fire community. The purpose of the association is to facilitate communication and provide leadership for the wildland fire community. The website announces many important events on fire-related summits, conferences, publications of journals and proceedings, scholarships, and has a bookstore where one can order books.
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Title: Eurasian Fire in Nature Conservation Network (EFNCN) / EFNCN
Language: English
Description: The EFNCN provides a platform and networking mechanism for those who actively apply or conduct research in prescribed burning for the purpose of nature conservation (biodiversity management, habitat management), landscape management and forestry. The region of interest is temperate-boreal Eurasia and the adjoining countries of Southeast Europe, Caucasus, Central and Northeast Asia. A review on the cultural fire history and fire ecology of Central Northern Europe is presented on this site with an extensive list of bibliography as well as a list of EFNCN and related meetings.
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Title: European Mediterranean Disaster Information Network (EU-MEDIN) / EU-MEDIN
Language: English
Description: EU-MEDIN is an initiative of DG Research of the European Commission. The aim of EU-MEDIN is to foster co-ordination among the research and user communities for improved disaster preparedness and early warning, communication and rapid exchange of data and knowledge. EU-MEDIN is a portal to organize the recording of and provide access to the research results of EU-supported projects in the field of natural disasters (forest fires, floods, avalanches etc.). European R&D results and resources can be searched through a metadata database.
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Title: Pacific Forest Forum (PFF) / PFF
Language: EnglishRussian
Description: PFF is a non-governmental organization created by a group of forest specialists. PFF implements: education and training; research work; participation in Russian and international programs and projects; organization of conferences, seminars, meetings both domestic and international; printing of scientific materials, books, articles; field expeditions and experiments; consultation services; information dissemination; capacity building in the Northeast Asia, etc., in the field of forestry, forest fires and forest fire management, and international research collaboration.
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Title: National Wildland Fire Training /
Language: English
Description: The National Wildland Fire Training’s mission is to simplify the training communications system with an objective of improving service to the customer and reduce duplication in training administrative services. The national training web site provides a central location for customers to find training course information from all geographic areas by enabling access to Local Area, Geographic Area, National, and other related Interagency Wildland Fire Training information in the USA.
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Title: National Wildfire Coordination Group's Training Working Team / NWCG Training Working Team
Language: English
Description: The National Wildfire Coordination Group's (NWCG) Training Working Team (TWT) manages the NWCG training curricula program; recommends for approval the Wildland Fire curriculum; and provides guidance to other teams on the development process and standards. Its mission is to develop relevant NWCG training in a cost-effective manner to meet the needs of the wildland fire community. Information on courses and online training are provided, and training material can be ordered.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_5 / Video_Quema prescrita_Espana_Cuevas Caballero_5
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Video_Prescribed burn_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6 / Video_Quema prescrita_Spain_Cuevas Caballero_6
Language: Spanish
Description: The video shows a high intensity prescribed burn in a protected area near Artenara in Gran Canaria, Spain. The objective was fire ecology research in Canarian Pine ecosystems.
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Title: Hinton Training Centre / HTC
Language: English
Description: The Hinton Training Centre (HTC) offers a wide range of training, education and research related to Alberta’s sustainable resources. The HTC delivers annually about 45 wildfire-related courses, from basic fire suppression, to advanced planning and management training, as well as a five-month Wildfire Training Academy program. An interactive, multimedia fire simulator has been developed to place students in realistic fire situations. Several wildfire training CD ROMs are available upon request.
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Title: Partners in Protection /
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: Partners in Protection is a multi-disciplinary partnership committed to raising awareness, providing information, and developing forums with a view to encouraging proactive, community-based initiatives. The principal objective is to reduce risk of fire losses and enhance safety in the wildland-urban interface. Partners in Protection is an Alberta-based coalition of professionals representing national, provincial, and municipal associations and government agencies responsible for emergency services, land-use planning, and forest/park management and research. The website provides practical tools for building FireSmart communities.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_UK_Dalwhinnie /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Dalwhinnie, United Kingdom: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was experimental fires for determination of fire behaviour characteristics in heather.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_UK_Pentland Hills /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Pentland Hills, United Kingdom: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was validation and further development of empirical fire behaviour models for FireBeaters project in heathland.
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Title: Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) / FFS
Language: English
Description: The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program of the Rocky Mountain Research Station is located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The Program conducts international, cutting edge work in wildland fire research from fire physics to fire ecology. The Program performs work under its national charter to conduct fundamental and applied research relating to wildland fire processes, terrestrial and atmospheric effects of fire, and ecological adaptations to fire. In addition, the Program develops associated knowledge tools and applications for both managers and scientists. Original research includes: fire behavior prediction modeling, soil heating modeling and effects, landscape fire ecosystem dynamics, smoke emissions and dispersion modeling, and fire danger rating.
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Title: The Fire Research And Management Exchange System (FRAMES) / FRAMES
Language: English
Description: The Fire Research And Management Exchange System (FRAMES) catalogues wildland fire data, documents, metadata, tools, projects, webpages, and other information resources. The goal of FRAMES is to make these content resources easy to find, access, distribute, compare, and use. Through FRAMES, content can be exchanged and transferred between researchers, managers, and other stakeholders. FRAMES also provides additional services including threaded discussions, announcements, calendars, and file sharing for project management and other collaborative efforts. Publicly accessible content on FRAMES is organized into three main areas: subject area, geographic area, partner sites.
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Title: Colorado Wildland Fire and Incident Management Academy (CWFIMA) / CWFIMA
Language: English
Description: The Colorado Wildfire Academy and Great Plains Wildfire College provides National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG), Incident Command System (ICS), and other quality emergency management courses. Its mission is to promote safety and integrate the efforts of local, State, Federal, Tribal, private-sector, and non-governmental emergency response organizations by utilizing the Incident Command System and facilitating a national approach to domestic incident management by providing both the cognitive and hands-on incident management knowledge, instructed by the nations brightest authorities.
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Title: Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) / FCW&FRMT
Language: English
Description: The Florida Center for Wildfire and Forest Resources Management Training (FCW&FRMT) provides needed training to the public and private sector in forest resource management, prescribed fire, and wildfire management. The Florida Wildland Fire Training focuses heavily on wildland/urban interface issues and tactics.
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Title: US Forest Service Fire and Aviation Management /
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Aviation Management part of the US Forest Service is working in wildland fire management, operations, and research. The website provides a wide range of information and links on various topics from fire equipment, management, suppression, fire science, fire use, prevention and education, publications, news, training, employment, tools and technology, safety, to aviation and other.
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Title: Canadian Forest Service - Forest Fire in Canada /
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The Forest Fire section of the Canadian Forest Service provides daily fire maps and reports, weekly statistics, historical analysis, news, a fire database, publications, and facts about forest fire. Links to Canadian forest fire management agencies, fire systems, fire education and training, and maps and satellite images are also listed.
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Title: Wildfire Specialists Inc. /
Language: English
Description: Wildfire is an accredited company recognized by the Ministry of Natural Resources that provides fire fighting training as well as trained and experienced firefighters and over head for various Wildland Fire configurations for contracting throughout Canada and world-wide. Staff qualified and experienced in areas such as prescribed burn planning, prescribed burn implementation, ecological burning, slash reduction, and burn out operations is also offered. Forest fire fighting equipment is available for lease or rent.
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Title: Fire and Environmental Research Application Team (FERA) / FERA
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) informs management of natural resources through research and development in fuels and combustion science, fire and landscape ecology, and integration of the physical and ecological sciences. Detailed information on research projects, studies, publications, products, and news are available on the website.
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Title: CORDIS (Community Research and Development Information Service) / CORDIS
Language: EnglishFrenchGermanItalianPolishSpanish
Description: CORDIS, the Community Research and Development Information Service for Science, Research and Development, is the official source of information on the European seventh framework programme (FP7) calls for proposals. CORDIS is an information space, filled with a huge array of accurate and up-to-date data on European research and development activities and capacities. The site allows searching for projects, partners and results.
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Title: CSIRO Bushfire Team / Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Language: English
Description: CSIRO bushfire research is improving the understanding of fire, and improving technologies and strategies to save lives and limit damage. CSIRO has been involved in bushfire research for more than forty years. This has focused on: understanding and predicting bushfire behavior; the impact of bushfires on infrastructure; ecological responses to fire; the impact of climate change on bushfire risk; and pollutants and greenhouse gases as a result of bushfires.
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Title: Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) / WFORG)
Language: English
Description: The Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) was established in January 2001 in Hinton, Alberta. The WFORG's mission is to work on wildfire operations research, which includes evaluating fire equipment and protective clothing, reviewing and refining fire management systems and addressing current operational issues that have been identified by fire management practitioners within the forest industry. Research outputs are intended to benefit firefighters, fire managers, equipment manufacturers and service agencies.
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Title: Forest Fire Laboratory /
Language: English
Description: The Forest Fire Laboratory in Riverside, California, is a field research facility of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, headquartered in Albany, California. The laboratory is one of two Forest Service Labs in the nation devoted primarily to fire research. The five research units located at the Forest Fire Laboratory conduct research in the broad areas of Air Quality, Fire Science (prescribed fire, fire effects, wildland fire management etc.), and Recreation.
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Title: The Northwest and Alaska Fire Research Clearinghouse (FIREHouse) / FIREHouse
Language: English
Description: FIREHouse is a web-based project providing information about fire science and technology relevant to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Alaska. A goal is to provide "one-stop shopping" for resource managers, decision makers, scientists, students, and communities who want access to the results of efforts to understand and manage fire and fuels on public lands in these regions. It is designed to assist fire programs by facilitating access to fire research and associated information. The website provides online access to: Project and tool descriptions, contact information and links; Online publications; Proposals and study plans; Models; and Metadata.
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Title: Southwest Fire Use Training Academy (FUTA) / FUTA
Language: English
Description: The Southwest Fire Use Training Academy develops leadership skills in wildland fire use and prescribed fire through the integration of classroom and field-facilitated learning opportunities. The program uses existing fuels programs and facilities throughout the country and exposes trainees to a large variety of interagency fuels management programs.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Spain_Porrejon /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn at Monte Porrejon near Jubrique, Spain: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description, prescription, execution, ignition pattern, fire behaviour, and effects. The purpose of the treatment was to analyze the long-term effects of the use of prescribed burning on tree growth in a Pine forest.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Braderup-Sylt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Braderup on the island Sylt, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlanticl Calluna heathland. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Germany_Braderup-Sylt /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn in Braderup on the island Sylt, Germany: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description and supporting documents of the demonstration site. The purpose of the treatment was restoration of atlanticl Calluna heathland. A management plan is available from the contact person.
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Title: PHOENIX /
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: PHOENIX is a regional project centre of the European Forest Institute (EFI). PHOENIX has 18 member institutions from Mediterranean countries. The objectives of the consortium are: (1) to obtain a sound database gathering the state-of-the-art of existing scientific knowledge concerning the fire characteristics of the different forest types and respective species; (2) to develop a set of criteria which can be used to classify forest types in terms of the associated fire hazard and resilience; (3) to define the potential and limitation of the various post-fire management options; (4) to help developing the transfer mechanisms needed between research and its application by end-users. Coordinated by Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves, a research centre of the Instituto Superior de Agronomia in Lisbon, Portugal.
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Title: Database on Forest Disturbances in Europe (DFDE) /
Language: English
Description: The DFDE database aims at providing historic information about disturbances in the forests of Europe. In this context disturbance is defined rather broadly, namely as the occurrence of an event that causes unforeseen loss of living forest biomass or events that decrease the value or potential value of the wood or forest stand. The majority of disturbances is caused by natural agents, but other human induced impacts like sanitation fellings due to air pollution are also taken into account. Furthermore information about measures to reduce the impact of disturbances, mostly insect pests, were listed , like chemical or biological treatments. The information in this database was collected by means of a literature review, both from scientific papers as well as from grey literature. Each reference to a disturbance event is put in a single record, containing information on year of occurrence, exact date, country, region, district, disturbance type, tree species affected, volume, area, number, percentage, literature reference, underbark/overbark and other comments. Users must register to use DFDE.
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Title: Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo (CEAM) / Centre for the study of the Mediterranean Environment
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: CEAM was created in 1991 under the auspices of the Valencian Autonomous Government and Bancaja. It is a Centre of Applied Research. CEAM was created as a response to the need for potentiating research and development in environmental technology in the Mediterranean countries, where applied engineering within very rigid (mono-)discipline structures has traditionally predominated. CEAM was established as a multidiscipline centre and, as such, its research has been concentrated in inter-related thematic areas where it has achieved recognized international expertise. Air Pollution Programme; Pollution Effects Programme (Research into air pollution effects on different plant communities - natural and agricultural - in the Valencia region, with the aim of developing minimisation strategies at various levels); Forest Research Programme (Research and development of new management techniques for Mediterranean conditions, especially in regard to the restoration of forests and shrublands affected by fire and desertification processes); Meteorology and Climatology Programme (Analysis of the mechanisms and meteorological conditions - at synoptic and regional scales - leading to meteorological risk situations on the Spanish east coast, with special emphasis on torrential rains and forest fires).
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Title: FAO/GFMC Wildland Fire Management Terminology /
Language: EnglishFrenchGermanSpanish
Description: Links are provided to a number of glossaries and terminologies related to fire management. A revised version (December 2003) of the 1986 version of the FAO Wildland Fire Management Terminology is available (with English definitions and partial translation to French, Spanish, and German).
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Title: Núcleo de Investigação Científica de Incêndios Florestais (NICIF) / Centre for Forest Fires Scientific Research [Portugal]
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: NICIF is a Scientific Unit of the University of Coimbra, and carries out research related to the prevention of and the effects of forest fires. The objectives of NICIF include: investigation of forest fires; education of the public (and particularly young people) concerning the importance of the forest, especially with regard to preservation of forests and the prevention of forest fires.
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Title: Лесные пожары в России / Forest fires in Russia
Language: English
Description: The web-site provides information and analysis about forest fires in Russia - including news, articles, reports on forest fires, forest protection, machinery for forest protection, analytical data and expert opinions on the issue of forest fires.
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Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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Title: Corpo Forestale dello Stato / State Forest Service [Italy]
Language: Italian
Description: This site of the Corpo Forestale dello Stato describes their role, organizational structure, activities, personnel as well as their emergency services. The Corpo Forestale is a police force with civil status, specialized in the protection of the natural and landscape resources and in preventing and restrain crimes against the environment and the food and agricultural compartment. It contributes in maintaining public order and safety, especially in rural and mountain areas. The service is responsible for enforcing civil law in national and regional parks and reserves. They control the application of the CITES Convention on international trade in endangered species. They support the regional services in fighting forest fire and they contribute to civil protection and social security in mountain and rural areas. They participate in monitoring and reporting on the national forest resources (e.g. national forest inventory). The service also contributes to enforce the water protection, hunting and garbage management law. The service is under the direct control of the Italian Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policy.
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Title: International Forest Fire News (IFFN) / IFFN
Language: English
Description: IFFN is an extensive biannual newsletter (each issue more than 100 p.). The issues (from 1998) are available from the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) web-pages. Country Notes are articles about forest fires in particular countries. The archive for Country Notes articles is organized by country and goes back to 1990. IFFN is an activity of the Team of Specialists on Forest Fire, of the Joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Technology, Management and Training, and the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC).
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Title: Prevenció d'incendis forestals / Forest Fire Prevention
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: Information about forest fire prevention in Catalonia. The information is grouped under various headings including: Rural Agencies; Forest defence agencies; Fire risk map; Fire statistics; Authorization to ignite fires; Fire prevention legislation; Campaigns; High fire risk municipalities; System of evaluation of fire risk; Maps.
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Title: European Forest Fire Information System – EFFIS /
Language: English
Description: The purpose of the service is described as "to provide relevant information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions". EFFIS provides information for the protection of forests against fire in Europe, addressing both pre-fire and post-fire conditions. On the pre-fire phase, EFFIS is focused both on the development of systems to provide forest fire risk forecast based on existing fire risk indices, and on the development of new integrated forest fire risk indicators (EFFIS - Risk Forecast). These indices permit the harmonised assessment of forest fire risk at the European scale. They may be used as tools for the assessment of risk situations in cases where international co-operation in the field of civil protection is needed. On the post-fire phase, EFFIS is focused on the estimation of annual damage caused by forest fires in southern EU. All burned areas larger than 50 ha, which account for around 75 % of the total area burnt in southern Europe are mapped every year using satellite imagery (EFFIS - Damage Assessment).The first cartography of forest fire damages in southern EU was produced for the year 2000 and has continued in subsequent years. Additionally, as from 2003 a new activity for rapid assessment of forest fire damage has been developed in order to map all the fires larger than 100 ha twice during the fire season: at the beginning of August and at the beginning of October (EFFIS - Rapid Damage Assessment). The intended users are Civil Protection and Forest Services, in the Member States. The online map system is interactive and can be used by anyone. Some documents and publications are available for download by the public. There is a designated download area of the website, but access to this is restricted.
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Title: PiroPinus version 2.0 /
Language: English
Description: PiroPinus is a prescribed burning guide for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands in the form of a spreadsheet, conceived for operational use in the planning and evaluation of hazard reduction burns in natural fuels, i.e. slash from pruning or thinning is not present. It can also be used as a research tool for fire modelling purposes. Potential users are urged to try the guide in other medium- to long-needled pines (P. pinea, P. canariensis, P. radiata, P. nigra, P. halepensis), especially when the understorey is composed of Mediterranean-type species. PiroPinus is a all-in-one user-friendly tool that integrates models based on observed, real-world, fire behaviour and effects. Unlike other available tools, PiroPinus has the ability to: 1. Reflect local stand and fuel conditions in the output; 2. Assess the likelihood of sustained fire spread and quantify marginal burning conditions. Fire modelling systems using properly developed custom fuel models can be used to obtain accurate estimates of fire behaviour. However, such systems perform poorly at the high-end of the moisture content range and are not able to produce site-specific estimates. PiroPinus is composed of several interrelated or stand-alone worksheets for distinct objectives: (1) FUEL. Data entry of basic fuel and stand descriptors to assess fuel load and fire behaviour and effects; (2) RX WIN. Prescription window (general burning conditions); (3) RX DEV. Prescription development, the definition of burning conditions to avoid undesired fire impacts on trees and the forest floor; (4) MOIST. Fuel moisture content, to estimate the moisture contents of surface fine dead fuels and decomposing litter; (5) FIRE. Ignition and fire behaviour, to assess the likelihood of fire spread and quantify fire characteristics; (6) IGN PLAN. Assessment and optimization of area treatment rate; (7) TREES. Fire impact on trees, to assess canopy damage and mortality; (8) FUEL DYN. Fuel dynamics, to estimate fuel consumption and post-burn accumulation; (9) POST-FIRE. Post-burn assessment of fire behaviour and effects; (10) WEATH. Wind speed estimation and Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (for regional planning).
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Title: Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF) / Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications; Centro de Investigación Ecológica y Aplicaciones Forestales
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: CREAF is an institute dedicated to developing basic and applied research on terrestrial ecology. It is a public consortium established by the Catalan Government, the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), the University of Barcelona and the Institute of Catalan Studies (ICE). Major topics covered by CREAF include: Functional ecology of terrestrial ecosystems; Forest dynamics and management; Plant population biology; Ecological effects of global changes; Landscape ecology; Biodiversity and ecological processes; Fire ecology; Soil restoration; Land planning and sustainability. The following services are available via the CREAF webpages: Forest Information System (SIBosC) (Catalan); Land Cover Map (Catalan); Ecological and Forest Inventory (Catalan); search of CREAF publications database.
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Title: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie - Arbeitsgruppe Feuerökologie / Max-Planck Chemical Institute - Fire Ecology Research Group
Language: English
Description: The website of the Fire Ecology Research Group of the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC). The site provides information about the effects of fires on forest ecology, and details of the working group, research, partners, publications, and courses.
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Title: Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC) / Forest Technology Centre of Catalonia (CTFC)
Language: EnglishFrenchSpanish
Description: CTFC is a public consortia formed by the local and regional governments and the University of Lleida. Its mission is in education (courses, practices) and applied research in forests and related issues at the regional and European level. Research priorities include: Silviculture; Forest Management; Forest Fires; Forest Policy; and Wood and other Forest Products.
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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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Title: Défense des Forêts Contre l'Incendie (DFCI Aquitaine) /
Language: EnglishFrenchSpanish
Description: DFCI Aquitaine is an association pursuant to the French 1901 law that works to reduce the risk of forest fires in the Landes de Gascogne forest in southern France. It coordinates efforts in Landes, Gironde, Dordogne and Lot-et-Garonne.
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Title: Fire management - global assessment 2006 /
Language: English
Description: This study compliments the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FRA 2005), but presents information on fire in greater depth, including incidence, impact, and management in different regions of the world. The regions include Southeast Europe/Caucasus, Baltic and adjacent countries, and Mediterranean. An extensive bibliography and several annexes are provided, including a glossary.
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Title: Forest Fires Related EU Legislation /
Language: English
Description: Links to the EU legislation concerning forest fires.
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Title: Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves (CEABN) / Centre for Applied Ecology Prof. Baeta Neves
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: CEABN is a research centre within the Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon. CEABN is located in the old house of Professor Baeta Neves, a forester after whom the centre is named and who pioneered the issue of Nature Conservation in Portugal. The CEABN team is composed of foresters, biologists and landscape architects most of them specialized in natural resource management. CEABN activities can be divided in 5 working areas that present specific objectives: Biodiversity in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems; Wildlife Management; Fire Ecology and Management; Ecological Design and Landscape Architecture; Agro-Environment Education and Dissemination of Research Results.
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Title: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2.1) /
Language: English
Description: This data set consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 through December 2005. Users must register to access the database. The data can be accessed at - <<http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=849>>.
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Title: Instytut Badawczy Leśnictwa (IBL) / Forest Research Institute [Poland]
Language: EnglishPolish
Description: The Institute consists of thirteen scientific departments and an independent forest fire protection research laboratory that carry out scientific research and developmental work for the benefit of all forests, forest management and forestry needs in the range of forest afforestation and reforestation, tending, utilisation and protection, ecology, genetics, forest economics and policy, and carbon sequestration in Poland. The Institute actively participates in formulating legislation and forest policy of the State, and it undertakes activities for organs of the State. Information about forest activities in Poland, and daily fire danger (April to September) are available via the webpages of the institute. The institute also publishes the quarterly journal 'Leśne Prace Badawcze' (Forest Research Papers)- papers are in Polish with English abstracts.
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Title: Living with fire /
Language: English
Description: Living with Fire is an educational game that puts you in the place of a fire manager, based on research and tools developed for real-world fire management. The player is required to make decisions on how to manage the forest, whether to include controlled burning, the effects of your actions and how to tackle fire if it arises. At each stage you can read the comments of professionals and concerned citizens, and read about the consequences of each decision made.
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Title: NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) /
Language: English
Description: FIRMS provides MODIS hotspot/fire products to natural resource managers around the world in easy to use formats. There are a number of components, including: (1) Web Fire Mapper - an interactive WebGIS system; (2) an email alert service whereby users are informed by email/text message when a hotspot/fire occurs in or near a specified area of interest; (3) data downloads for the latest hotspots/fires; (4) and regional subsets of the MODIS images. Web Fire Mapper is an internet based mapping tool that delivers locations of hotspots/fires in near real time. For selected regions and countries you can view an interactive map showing hotspots/fires for a specified time period, combined with a choice of GIS layers and satellite imagery. In addition to the near real time hotspot/fire maps, Web Fire Mapper provides yearly global animations of monthly hotspots/fires. The global animation is created from monthly subsets to provide a synopsis of the burning pattern. The global animation cycles through an entire year to show the spatial and temporal variation of the burning in different parts of the world. These images help provide an understanding of the global pattern of hotspots/fires. Each hotspot detection represents the center of a 1 km pixel flagged as containing one or more actively burning hotspots/fires within that pixel. The hotspots/fires are detected using data from the MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument, on board NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.
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Title: Osservatorio Incendi Boschivi / Forest Fire Observatory
Language: EnglishItalian
Description: The aim of the Forest Fire Observatory is to increase the awareness of and improve knowledge in forest fires by collecting and communicating information on the causes, consequences, prevention and management of forest fire. In order to support environmental protection, the analysis of the national environmental legislation and the evaluation of its application are priority interests of the Observatory. It is also intended to offer the most up-to-date information on forest fires by functioning as a communication point for the topic. The website contains a database reporting national forest fire legislation, forest fire data and documents, and information on the Italian vegetation. The Observatory also collaborates with educational activities.
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Title: Prométhée /
Language: French
Description: Prométhée is a database of forest fires for 15 départements in south-east France. The database covers the period from 1973 to the latest year in which statistics have been published. Annual reports from 1997 are also available.
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Title: Silva Mediterranea /
Language: EnglishFrenchSpanish
Description: Silva mediterranea is a statutory body of FAO that covers the Mediterranean region. The work of the FAO Forestry statutory bodies is a combination of problem identification and policy and technical advice, to FAO, its members and others as appropriate. Membership in Silva Mediterranea is open to all members of the FAO African, European, and Near East Forestry Commissions, whose territories are situated wholly or in part in the Mediterranean basin proper or whose forest, agricultural, or grazing economies are intimately associated with those of the Mediterranean region. As of 2007 there were several working groups on: Forest fires; Cork oak; Land use and sustainable forest management; Future of Silva Mediterranea; Mediterranean conifers.
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Title: UK Vegetation Fire Standard (UKVFS) - Data Fields and Terminology for Wildfire Incidents and Prescribed Burning Operations within Great Britain and Northern Ireland /
Language: English
Description: United Kingdom Vegetation Fire Standard (UKVFS) project is a multi-government agency and organisation approach to delivering vegetation fire (Outdoor fires) reporting. Presently the United Kingdom has limited evidence on the impacts of, and use of, vegetation fire. Many vegetation fires are poorly, if at all, reported and the true impact of these incidents and operations is not fully understood. This has resulted in United Kingdom not being on an equal footing with European and international colleagues in assessing and reporting the scale of wildfire as a policy area. At a national level our systems are limited and uncoordinated. 2. UKVFS provides 111 of data fields covering three data themes; core, impact and improvement. These themes are form from twelve data sections listed below: (1) Core Date - Incident Reference Number, Fire Dates and Times, Fire Location, Fire Size (burnt area in hectares) and Cause; (2) Impact Data - Environmental and Heritage, Access and Social and Economic; (3) Improvement Data Fire Behaviour, Fire Preparedness & Prevention, Fire Response, and Fire Safety. In providing these data fields it also ensures a comprehensive and standardise terminology for vegetation fires. The information can be used by fire, governance and land management sectors across three of the emergency service processes (preparedness, prevention and response).
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Title: UNECE Forest Fire Statistics /
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: Forest Fire Statistics provides statistics on forest fires in the UNECE region, Europe, North America and the countries of the CIS. The data include the number and size of fires by forest types and causes for the period from 1991 to 2001. Previous editions were published under the ECE/TIM series; since 1994 they have been included as part of the Timber Bulletin.
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Title: Авиалесоохрана / Avialesookhrana
Language: EnglishRussian
Description: AviaLesoOkhrana is a Russian state organisation concerned with the monitoring and prevention of forest fires. The site offers access to several topics related to forest fire issues in Russia: wildfire reports, wildfire maps, cloudiness composites and climatic data for registered users.
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Title: D3.1-2a Review of knowledge gaps and proposal for fuel data collection and test runs /
Language: English
Description: A review of the different aspects of fuel moisture research was conducted. The following knowledge (research) gaps can be identified: (a) The horizontal spatial variability of dead fuel moisture in relation to vegetation (e.g., stand structure, crown closure, stem density, litter and duff depth, etc.) and topographic characteristics (aspect, slope, soil depth and type, etc.) needs to be measured and modelled in the field. (b) The temporal (diurnal and seasonal) variation in dead and live fuel moisture content as related to changes in meteorological parameters (air relative humidity and temperature, insolation and cloudiness, wind speed and duration, etc) needs to be measured in the field for all the dominant Mediterranean fuel types at the species level, to the extent possible. For fire-stricken geographical regions of the Mediterranean Basin, extensive data bases of seasonal fuel moisture data per species or fuel type must be created and, subsequently, converted through statistical analysis to empirical models of fuel moisture prediction, refined for every species or fuel complex. (c) Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) sorption (adsorption and desorption) curves of dead fuels as a function of air relative humidity and temperature need to be created for the fuels of all the dominant species. (d) The fuel moisture timelag (TL) concept needs to be reassessed and measured in dead fuels from different species in relation to the fuel moisture sorption phase (adsorption or desorption), in order to account for the moisture hysteretic effects of dead fuels during the wetting or drying process. (e) A physical model that predicts canopy (crown) live fuel moisture content variations in terms of stand and tree phenological and physiological characteristics and soil water balance has to be formulated. (f) A comparison between actual measurements of dead fuel moisture with the moisture content of fuel analogues (i.e., fuel moisture sticks) is necessary in order to validate the precision of the analogues in fuel moisture assessment. (g) The relationship between dead and live fuel moisture and drought (prolonged period of high temperatures and low air and soil humidity) needs to be further investigated, and in particular, the response of shrub and tree species moisture content to drought. The use of the newly formed SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) drought index might be useful in the correlation with fuel moisture, in addition to the traditionally used KBDI and Palmer indexes. In view of the expected global warming and climatic change, this research aspect of fuel moisture could be very significant in the future. (h) The moisture of extinction (ME) of dead and live fuels must be measured in the field (in situ) with a long series of ignition experiments in different fuel types and, subsequently, correlated with the existing fuel moisture content and meteorological parameters in the field, into regression and probabilistic models. ME values of the most significant Mediterranean fuel types must be measured in the laboratory and in the field. (i) The condensation (water vapour that originates from the atmosphere in the form of dew on the surface of dead fuels) and the latent heat of vaporisation of free water from the fuel particle surface are two terms that are currently neglected and must be taken into account in future physical models of dead fuel moisture content. (j) The optimal temporal (time) step for monitoring vegetation moisture content (greenness) via satellite imagery needs to be determined in dead and live Mediterranean fuel complexes.
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Title: D3.1-4 Fire occurrence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: First results /
Language: English
Description: Sardinia is one of the most fire-prone regions of Italy. The high incidence of fires in Sardinia constitutes a problem in terms of damages and resources management, consequently, for provisional and operational planning, it’s very important to know the wildfire regime characteristics and their linkage with the determinant factors. The study of the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wildfires and the remote-sensed symphenological variables highlighted the role of temporal NDVI signal as a reliable tool for analyzing ecological processes, going beyond the biophysical significance of single-date NDVI values as proxies to photsyntetic activity. The results obtained show that the simultaneous ordering of symphenological variables and fire regime characteristics, based on the spatial distribution of PNV, is consistent with a climatic control that acts on both phenomena. In an evolving landscape, knowing that the wildfires regime is strictly determined by potential natural vegetation phenology can be helpful for monitoring and predicting fires behaviour under changing climatic scenario. Finally, by providing a phytogeographical framework for characterizing fires, the PNV map can be considered a valuable tool for applying research results to fire management policies, since it takes properly into account the underlying determinant factors.
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Title: D3.1-5 Probability of ignition modelling in forest fuels – First results /
Language: English
Description: Following a similar approach to previous research, and aiming to cover gaps in the literature on ignition, especially in regard to Mediterranean conditions, the present study focuses on the following: (1) To evaluate the threshold of fuel moisture content that allows a fire to start. A range of fuel types (pine needles, grass and Quercus coccifera leaves) are examined, as are different ignition sources (kitchen matches, cigarettes, machinery sparks and electrical discharge), with the presence/absence of wind in order to determine the probability of ignition of selected natural dead fuels (MAICh); and (2) To measure the probability of ignition of annual live herbaceous fuels, at various moisture contents, in the field (AUTh). Fuel moisture content (FMC) is used as the main predictor variable throughout these experiments because it has a major effect on fuel ignitability, is easily altered and can be accurately measured. Only the first results of the study are presented within this deliverable: (1) Probability of ignition of pine needles (Pinus halepensis) with kitchen matches and cigarettes as ignition sources conducted in the wind tunnel of MAICh. (2) Probability of ignition of grass (Hyparrhenia hirta) with kitchen matches as an ignition source conducted in the wind tunnel of MAICh. (3) Some preliminary test of pine needles with machinery sparks as well as grass with cigarettes conducted in the wind tunnel of MAICh. (4) Fuel moisture extinction in live annual herbaceous plants (Avena barbata) in the field (AUTh). The final results will be presented within deliverable D 3.1-10 due in month 46 of the project.
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Title: D3.1-10 Fire occurence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: final results (merged with D3.1-9) /
Language: English
Description: Fire is a basic ecological factor that contributes to determine vegetation diversity and dynamics in time and space. Fuel characteristics play an essential role in fire ignition and propagation; at the landscape scale fuel availability and flammability are closely related to the vegetation phenology that directly affects wildfire pattern in time and space. In this view, the annual NDVI profiles derived from high temporal resolution satellites, like SPOT Vegetation, represent an effective tool for monitoring the coarse-scale vegetation seasonal timing. The objective of this study thus consists in quantifying the explanatory power of multitemporal NDVI profiles on the fire regime characteristics of the potential natural vegetation (PNV) types of Sardinia (Italy) over a five-year period (2000-2004). The results obtained show a good association between the NDVI temporal dynamics of the PNV of Sardinia and the corresponding fire regime characteristics, emphasizing the role of the bioclimatic timing of the vegetation in controlling the coarse-scale wildfire spatio-temporal distribution of Sardinia. By providing a sound phytogeographical framework for describing different wildfire regimes, PNV maps can thus be considered helpful cartographic documents for fire management strategies at the landscape scale.
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Title: Deliverable D3.1-12 Empirical modelling of fuel flammability and initial fuel propagation, including determination of fuel moisture threshold for fire ignition /
Language: English
Description: This report sums up the fuel flammability experiments (WP 3.1) dedicated to the determination of the thresholds of fuel moisture for fire ignition, and to the assessment of the ignition probability for different dead (i.e. litter) forest fuels in Greece, Spain, Argentina, and France. The probability of ignition has been modelled in for forest fuels through laboratory fires (Cemagref, INIA-CIFOR, MAICh, AUTH and CIEFAP), using different sources of ignitions and different environmental conditions (i.e. nul wind versus windy conditions). The sources of ignition were glowing, flaming, or sparks. The wind was controlled and set as nul or strong. Fuels were chosen as representative of the main natural (e.g. dead leaves and litter duff) and modified (e.g. pine plantations, residuals of fuel treatments) ecosystems of each country. As the main factor controlling ignition, fuel moisture content (FMC) was controlled experimentally along a wide range (generally 5 to more than 50%). The main findings are: (i) the importance of the combination of the source of ignition, the wind speed and the fuel type to assess the ignition. It has been proved that ignition can vary strongly according to this ‘triangle’, with some sources of ignition being especially efficient for some fuel types, and the complex influence of wind that may increase or decrease the ignition success; (ii) the establishment of community- or species-specific logistic models of ignition versus FMC (see Figure below); (iii) the subsequent determination of fuel moisture of extinction for most fuels studied.
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Title: D3.3-1 Review of data structures for fuel database and protocols for fuel description /
Language: English
Description: Our overall goal in this work package can be defined as follows: “the systematic collection, storage and processing of knowledge on fuels for different users, with different needs, at different scales in order to assess the fuel complex and its fire potential from combustion to the landscape level”. We intend to: (1) collect, store and process existing knowledge on: (i) fuel acquisition protocols / fuel sampling methods; (ii) resulting fuel data categories & fuel models; (iii) allocation of fuel data categories & models to different fire behaviour & fire models at different scales. (2) generate, collect, store and process new knowledge on: (i) which fuel data protocol /fuel sampling method for which purpose at which scale? (ii) user needs: which user needs what at which scale, why & when/how often? This can be achieved by developing a knowledge platform with a single, on-line point of access. This will allow fire ecologists, modellers and managers (and eventually the general public) to access information on definitions, techniques for monitoring fuels, key fuel descriptors with regards to fire behaviour and impact and existing fuel models (Table 1). The system will help to harmonize fire control planning and experimental fire procedures across Europe, where many different approaches are in use (see EUFIRELAB report: UNIT2: D-01-02-01/06 http://www.eufirelab.org/). The system should provide a ‘Clearing House’ for data and information relating to fuel. This may be partly through the collection and storage of data in a single integrated system, and partly through the collection of metadata about information that will be stored elsewhere. We also propose to develop a wiki or bliki to which the fire community can contribute.
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Title: D3.4-2 Review of fuel description methods /
Language: English
Description: The scope of this state-of-the-art is to give an overview on existing fuel description methods and their respective field protocols. Wildland fuels characteristics can be viewed as a hierarchy of levels of increasing complexity, from the cell, fuel particle to the fuel complex or stand and landscape level. The emphasis put on each hierarchy of fuel properties in this document will reflect the type of information required, which is, first of all, related to the approach taken to model fire behaviour.
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Title: D4.1-1a Spatial and temporal statistics on wildfire regimes across Europe /
Language: English
Description: An assessment was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different areas in Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Portugal. In this first stage of analysis on fire selectivity, we focused solely on fire ignitions without taking into account the corresponding burned areas. The development of appropriate statistical methods for computing the strength of association between the burned area of wildfires and land cover classes on a coarse-scale basis will be the subject of additional work. The analyzed data sets are composed of: (i) 13377 fire records in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2004, (ii) 1331 fire records in the Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri (Switzerland) during the period 1982-2005, (iii) 250 fire records in the Chalkidiki Peninsula (Macedonia, Greece) during the period 1985-1997, and (iv) 3023 fire records in the Coimbra Region (Portugal).
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Title: D3.4-1 Georeferenced database of representative sites including ecological data /
Language: English
Description: The first part of this deliverable gives an overview of the different study sites in the different countries (France, Greece, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia) involved in fuel description and mapping. The second part of the deliverable is dedicated to the description of the main vegetation types. The third part gives some examples of the plots that are described and some sampling methods, but a more detailed state-of-the-art will be given in D3.4-2. Then, in a fourth part, a list of the available data on the study sites is given. This list is detailed in an annexed table file. Study sites are also georeferenced in a GIS file.
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Title: D4.1-1b Publication describing wildfire regimes distribution in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: The deliverable is composed of four studies for different regions: (1) Analysis of the fire occurrence in the phytoclimatic regions of Sardinia; (2) Analysis of fire occurrences in the vegetation zones of Macedonia, Greece; (3) Assessing the relative fire proneness of different forest types in Portugal; (4) Selective burning of forest vegetation in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland).
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Title: 4.1-2b-39 Publication on the fire proneness of different land use classes in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: This study investigated the fire proneness of different land use classes with specific reference to a case study for the whole of Portugal, and then investigated the relationships between ignitions and land cover for three selected European study areas: (1) Sardinia, Italy; (2) Coimbra District, Portugal; (3) Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri, Switzerland.
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Title: D5.2-2 Guide for end-users to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: The objective of this guide is to propose methodologies to characterize and map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: D5.3-1 Report on the effects of broad scale and long-term application of prescribed burning on fire risk components /
Language: English
Description: Effect of prescribed burning on the mitigation of fire risk was discussed in fire prone ecosystems of three European countries (Greece, France and Portugal). Two study cases were presented using two different fire modelling approaches, the spatial fire growth model FARSITE and FIRETEC a physically based fire propagation model. This study showed that fuel management with prescribed burning had a significant effect on fire propagation hazard. It needs to be completed with further studies on prescribed burning effects on the other fire risk components such as ignition likelihood or vulnerability (fire effects on trees). First results also showed the need of optimizing the spatial pattern of fire application both when applied extensively on the landscape, and when located on a fuel break network. The first study case concerned a conifer forest located in Kassandra peninsula in northern Greece, which has been affected by a 7120 ha wildfire in August 2006. Prescribed burning effectiveness was assessed by using the FARSITE simulator for comparing fire spread over the landscape before and after prescribed burning application on a network of stripe-shaped fuel-breaks. Analysis showed a significant reduction of fire potential (fireline intensity, flame length and total burned area) as a result of fuel treatments. The second study case concerned a shrubland and woodland mosaic in limestone Provence, France, where prescribed burning has been used as a fuel reduction tool for more than 15 years The effectiveness of prescribed burning was assessed by comparing fire potential (rate of spread, fireline intensity) before and in the years following prescribed burning treatments. Analysis carried out at the stand scale gave valuable information on the immediate potential fire hazard reduction after prescribed burning. In order to estimate the appropriate prescribed burning return interval, two management scenarios were used (i) a fire intensity threshold compatible with efficient and safe fire fighting or (ii) a shrub encroachment threshold easy to assess by forest managers. In both cases, the prescribed burning return interval varied from 2 to 3 years, depending on fuel types. When applying prescribed burning on a 15 years period, fire risk mapping on the whole State forest showed a higher fire risk reduction when using the fire intensity threshold than a fuel encroachment threshold. A third study case in the Portuguese mainland tested an important assumption of the fire paradox: does fuel age have an influence on burn probability and wildfire size? Fire frequency analysis of mapped fire perimeters ≥10 ha (1998-2008) indicated that fire occurrence was weakly to moderately dependent of fuel age. However, contrarily to the usual expectation, age-dependency did not decrease for larger fire size classes (i.e with increasingly extreme fire weather). Finally, we explored the variation in fire size statistics with fuel age. Older fuels (roughly >8 years after burning) were associated to more variable fire sizes, allowing much larger wildfires. From the results we infer that landscapes submitted to a mean prescribed fire return interval of 4 years will not support wildfires larger than 500 ha. However, adequate spatial planning of the treatments is expected to reduce the annual treatment rate. This deliverable contributes to solving the Fire Paradox because it clearly shows how fuel modification can decrease wildfire hazard and severity which is the first specific objective to be addressed in Integrated Wildland Fire Management. The state of the art chapter has shown that several fuel modification techniques, such as mechanical treatments, are available and used in Europe, but it has also demonstrated that prescribed burning although being increasingly used in some countries, still has to be strongly supported with the objective of the wisest complementarities between fuel treatments. Also, prescribed burning is the approach based on the paradox of fire, reducing fuels strategically before they can be used by wildfires, thus decreasing wildfire risk and severity.
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Title: D10.1-1a-28 Survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are a major problem for many European societies threatening human lives and property with disastrous impacts particularly at the wildland-urban interface. Furthermore, this issue has changed greatly in recent years and increasingly the reduction of wildfire hazard and the sustainable development of natural and managed ecosystems in Europe require new practices in wildland fire management, such as prescribed burning and suppression fire, together with increasing the public and political awareness through knowledge and technology transfers. This report is aimed to help solving the fire paradox by a better learning and training in the wise use of fire. We have accomplished a detailed survey of the existing academic and professional training materials related to forest fire. This review includes several countries: Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Morocco, Italy, France, Germany, and Chile. We have analyzed the official degrees concerned with wildland fire issues with special emphasis towards medium and higher levels of education (college and universities). This subject is mainly addressed in Forestry majors and related fields (i.e., environmental sciences). Often, the “wise use of fire” topic is only a small part of the wildland fire content. We have also reviewed the education addressing worker levels. This includes vocational education (for young people to get ready for the job market in “vegetation and fire management”) and internal agency education (specifically set up to training employees already in an organization or agency, i.e., firefighter department). The later are mostly short courses taught by vegetation or fire managers within the agency. Companies working for the administration also develop these short courses for their employees. In these wildland fire courses, we seldom find “fire use” as a topic. As a result, we propose a set of actions in order to promote the wise use of fire, to allow more tools (i.e., suppression fire use, prescribed burning use) for both vegetation and fire managers, and simultaneously helping to solve the fire paradox. The main proposals are a) to display, in Fire Intuition site (http://fireintuition.efi.int), the academic education and training programs that are available in the present about Suppression Fire and Fuel management. The objective is to make these informations more accessible to the general public and more specifically to prospective students and professional; b) to study how to set up a comprehensive certification process in fire management and to fire workers’ proficiency. In this way, we can get something alike the “red card” certification in USA and Canada that has helped them enormously in large fire conflagrations. In those situations, many people is involved from very diverse agencies and under a single Incident Commander. c) to promote within many universities and vocational schools the “fire paradox concept”, d) to educate and training in fire science and management, e) to promote the exchange of both instructors and students among universities and vocational schools from different countries or regions. Some are doing fine in this regard already. f). to promote an international master degree in Wildland Fire Management (a so called FireMaster proposal has been launch in this direction already) aimed to train and provide the best professionals (fire managers) ever to address this on going challenge of wildland fire damages and scares. In short we propose to promote the wise use of fire to help towards solving the fire paradox.
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Title: D10.1-2 Metadata developed on the existing academic and professional training material related to forest fire. /
Language: English
Description: The aim of this deliverable is to create a metadata-base of the existing academic and professional training material and courses related to forest fires and to organize them within the consortium of FIRE PARADOX. This deliverable deals with Learning Object Metadata (LOM) creation and manipulation. This metadata would provide a useful tool for different purposes such as the on-line part of a master degree in wildland fire science and management. Learning Object Metadata is a data model encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning. The purpose of learning object metadata is to support the reusability of learning objects, to aid discoverability, and to facilitate their interoperability, usually in the context of online learning management systems. LOM standards define the hierarchy of data elements for learning objects description. At the top level of the hierarchy are nine categories, which are described in details in this deliverable. For each data element, LOM specifies a name, explanation, size, example value, data type, and other key details. The “RELOAD Editor”, a Java application, was selected to create learning object metadata. The installation of the software, the metadata file creation, the metadata entering and the functionalities of this editor are described in this deliverable. Furthermore, the procedure for metadata indexing and storage is illustrated.
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Title: D11.1-1 Review of main sources of communication on fire and natural disasters in Europe /
Language: English
Description: The goal of the deliverable D11.1.1 is to make a review of main sources of communication. So this report tries to answer mainly the following question: who diffuses information on fires and natural disasters? This report is concerned by describing the main transmitters of information in the field of wildfires and natural disasters. The structure is as follows: - Presentation of the main theoretical hypothesis and fundamental research axes which have been chosen to guide our research; - Investigation with the partners of the Fire paradox consortium and the main findings; - Search for reports produced on the aspect of communication in the field of natural disasters and wildfires, including short summaries of these reports.
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Title: D2.1-4 Measurements of thermal degradation, ignition and combustion on representative Boreal and Mediterranean fuels /
Language: English
Description: The work presented in this report is a part of the research effort done to improve the knowledge on the thermal degradation of forest fuels. The understanding of these processses is of vital importance for the development of physical fire behaviour models . Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are thermal analysis techniques that provide information on the thermal behaviour of different fuel samples and these data may facilitate the better understanding of the mechanisms of ignitability and combustibility of forest fuels with different chemical composition. The thermal degradation of 10 forest species common in the Mediterranean region has been compared using TGA and DSC techniques. Almost all the tested species demonstrated similar pyrolitic behaviour, except Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Heat Release Rate (HRR) of a fuel is among the most important parameters for understanding combustion process, fire characteristics and propagation rates. It serves to define parameters such as flame geometry and temperature fields. In a previous work, different partners with different bench-scale equipments to measure HRR curves as well as concentrations of the different gaseous by-products of the fuel combustion put in common their expertise testing common samples. This common work and conclusions about experimental conditions to test forest fuel in bench-scale calorimeters was presented in a previous document (deliverable "D2.1-1 Methods for the experimental study combustion adapted to forest fuels and recommendations for modelling"). In this report some result obtained by a Mass Loss Calorimeter with an open-path FTIR spectroscopic system in Pinus pinea and Cistus laurifolius are presented to study the influence on the HRR, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves of parameters like the fuel moisture content or the bulk density of the tested sample. Besides, a Flame Propagation Apparatus has been used to apply oxygen consumption calorimetry for HRR and a FTIR has been used to measure gas concentrations of combustion products in smoke. Results on several pine needles (analyzing flow and species influences) and boreal moss are presented. A Flame Propagation Apparatus (FPA) joined to a FTIR gas analyzer is used to continue previous studioes on pine needles in order to better understand the different regimes for the combustion dynamics of forest fuels. Also Boreal moss has been tested as a new fuel common in Northern Europe. The aim was to investigate the possible differences in behaviour between this fuel and pine needles.
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Title: D4.4-1 Database of market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database on the market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The data has the following categories: (i) Timber; (ii) Non-wood products; (iii) Hunting; (iv) Fire extinction costs; (v) Reforestation costs. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
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Title: D4.4-2 Database on non-market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database of studies on the non-market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, and Spain.
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to Characterize and to Map Wildland Urban Interface. Part1- State of the art on the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 1 provides an overview of the methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces.
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Title: Fire Paradox Fuel Manager /
Language: English
Description: The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a computer software integrated in the data processing chain between the European data and knowledge base on fuels (Fire Paradox Fuel Database) and the 3D physical-based fire propagation models. From a fire manager's point of view, vegetation is not only a conglomerate of plants, but it is also combustible organic material that holds a potential fire risk. It is therefore of great interest to assess the effects of silvicultural measures and fuel treatments to appraise their efficiency on fire hazard reduction. Within the Fire Paradox project such a fuel and fire effects assessment system has been developed. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager enables users to analyse the relationships between vegetation characteristics, fire behaviour and post-fire impact on vegetation. The Fire Paradox Fuel Manager is a key application in the fire modelling process with the following major objectives: (1) to generate vegetation scenes in 3D to be used as input data for fire behaviour modelling; (2) to visualize fire effects on shrubs and trees; (3) to simulate post fire vegetation succession coupled with a plant growth model. The software has been developed on the Capsis (Computer-aided projection of strategies in silviculture) platform for modelling forest dynamics and stand growth. Capsis is a tool for forestry researchers, forest managers and educators.
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Title: D3.1-8 Dead fuel moisture modelling and validation /
Language: English
Description: This report presents the final results of researches developed about dead fuel moisture prediction, where empirical dead moisture content models fitted from atmospheric variables were analysed for: Pinus halepensis in Greece, Pinus sylvestris in Poland, and Pinus pinea, P. pinaster and P. radiata in Spain. Several types of fuels were considered: litter, duff and suspended needles. Moreover, an evaluation of the capability of different existing models to predict dead fuel moisture content in the above pine species and Eucalyptus globulus in Spain, and Nothofagus antarctica and Astrocedrus chilensis in Argentina was carried out. In general terms, FWI codes and the Sneeuwjagt and Peet values, adequately reflected the pattern of variation of fuel moisture of litter and duff. Still, the estimates of these models did not show sufficient accuracy to be used directly as predictors of the dead fuel moisture content. In periods not affected by precipitation, simpler vapour exchange models appeared to be suitable for dead fuel moisture content predictions.
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Title: D3.1-1 Review of existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characteristics /
Language: English
Description: Fuel moisture, that is "the moisture percentage of fuel, usually measured by oven-drying a sample and calculating the ratio of dry and moist samples" (according to the EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01 "Methods for wildland fuel description and modelling: A state of the art") is a critical parameter that affects fire ignition, fire behaviour as well as the impacts of fire. Fuel moisture content is a necessary input for all existing physical, semi-physical and empirical fire behaviour prediction models. In addition, fuel moisture content is a main component of most fire danger rating systems. From the operational point of view, fuel moisture content estimates are also required for prescribed burning (planning and use) and for suppression activities. On the other hand, the characterization of fuel beds, defined as "individual fuel particles organized in defined proportions and structural configurations" (EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01), has also been pointed out as one of the keys for the assessment of potential fire behaviour and effects, related with both wildland fire prevention and fighting. Therefore, fire scientists as well as fire managers require specific information concerning fuel moisture content and fuel bed characteristics, as it has also been pointed out in Fire Paradox D3.3-1. In this frame, the aim of this deliverable (3.1-1) is to give an overview on existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characterization. To achieve this goal, a search was conducted through Internet, EuFireLab documentation and other literature, and a questionnaire requesting information on the databases for fuel moisture or fuel bed characterization was sent to all members of the Fire Paradox Module 3. A total of five positive answers (XG-CIFAL, Cemagref, University of Thessaloniki, Forest Research Institute of Warsaw and University of Edinburgh) was received.
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Title: D4.2-3-36 Fire flammability of forest plant formations in Poland /
Language: English
Description: In this deliverable, a description is presented of the fire flammability of the basic forest plant formations in Poland. Two aspects of the study were distinguished. The first (general) aspect was related to analyses of the occurrence of forest fires depending on the selected factors. The other (detailed) aspect focused on the research on the fire properties of selected forest fuels; inter alia, as a result of the general analyses conducted previously. The scope of the study covered: (1) the analysis of the flammability of Poland's forests, taking into account - the CORINE 2000 classification of land uses, the site and stand conditions (forest site types, tree species, stand age), the weather conditions and seasonality of forest fire outbreaks, the impact of climate change on forest flammability; (2) the investigation into the physico-chemical properties of basic forest fuels, including - the combustion heat and the calorific value, the ignition temperature, the smoulder temperature, the ignition time, the drying capacity, the fire load and structure, fire gas emissions, the spread of forest fires.
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Title: D5.2-3 Development of a field survey “post fire assessment protocol” /
Language: English
Description: This document which acts as a protocol to be used in post-fire damage assessment consists of the following parts: a one-page field-survey template form, detailed description of the template, and, instructions on how to fill in the template. The protocol is based, mainly, on the works of González-Alonso (2004), Ruiz Gallardo (2004) and Key & Benson (2004) and focuses on assessing fire damage on vegetation at the landscape level. The proposed template can be used to record fire severity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and, is compatible to be used with remotely sensed satellite imagery.
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Title: D5.2-1 Method to characterize and to map wildland urban interface. Part 2- Methods developed in France, Spain and Greece. Application of the different methods to characterize and to map wildland urban interfaces in Sardinia /
Language: English
Description: D5.2-1 part 2 describes methods developed in France, Spain and Greece to characterize and map the wildland urban interface. The three methods were then used to characterize and map the wildland urban interface in Sardinia.
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Title: D5.2-5 Literature review and synopsis of the methodologies to estimate vulnerability /
Language: English
Description: A literature review and synopsis of the methodologies to estimate vulnerability. The main sections of the report are: Vulnerability as a wildfire risk component; Vulnerability assessment (including - Population vulnerability, Structural vulnerability, Vulnerability of the environmental values, Soil vulnerability, Vulnerability index).
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Title: Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina) / Fire behaviour in grassland ecological site 'media loma', western Chaco region (Argentina)
Language: Spanish
Description: Fire behavior, considered a part of fire ecology, is together with fire prevention one of the two components of the ´fire triangle´ currently used as a basis for fire management and control. We assessed the fire behavior in a grassland located in the midland range ecological site in the Chaco region, northwestern Argentina. The site of the experiments was the ´La María´Experimental ranch, INTA Santiago del Estero Research Station, (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E). Fire was applied in two study sites in 6 plots each. Fine fuel load, botanical composition, and fine fuel bulk density were estimated by sampling. Fire behavior was assessed by estimating forward rate of spread and flame length. These data were analysed using ANOVA with study site as independent variable. Correlation among variables was assessed using the Kendall’s ô correlation coefficient. Study sites presented a different botanical composition: plots were either dominated by Trichloris pluriflora (E.) Fournier, or by Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam.) Kuntze. Plant of these species possess different proportion of stems and leaves. These facts significantly affected fine fuel load, bulk density (p > F = 0,0001 in both cases) and the forward rate of spread (p > F = 0.0001). The latter was 27,62 m*min-1 in study site 1, where the first species dominated; and 21 m*.min-1 in study site 2, where the second dominated, respectively. Average flame length was 3,5 m, but reached 6 m when volatile shrubs ignited and participated in the propagation of fire. Correlations among forward rate of spread and fuel load with bulk density was positive and significant (p < 0,0001), but was not significant in the case of flame length. Fires were of high intensity and move fast and need blacklines or other indirect measures for control.
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