EFI logo

Metadata & Repository browser

found 20 records in 152 ms.

Title: D7.4-2 Review on CO2 emissions mitigation through prescribed burning options to apply prescribed fires within the frame of the Kyoto protocol a case study in Patagonia /
Language: English
Description: Although wildland fire is known as a natural force that has shaped most vegetation types of the world, its mismanagement during the last century has lead to more frequent and catastrophic fires at present times. Apart from the concern raised globally on how to deal with this problem, wildland fires are also being recognized as one of the sources of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG´s) that influence global climate change. One of the techniques used to reduce the risk of destructive wildfires (i.e. prescribed burning), has also the theoretical potential of mitigating carbon emissions, and effectively contributes to the efforts proposed as part of the Clean Development Mechanism within the Kyoto protocol. In order to apply this concept to a real case, a study was set in pine afforestations of the Andean region of Patagonia, Argentina, with the objective of evaluating the potential of prescribed burns for reducing GHG’s emissions. The scenario was established for a period of ten years, in which prescribed burns were compared to the traditional management scheme, which included the probability of annual average of wildfire occurrence based on available wildfire statistics. The two contrasting situations were: 1) Managed afforestations, affected by the annual average rate of wildfires occurred in the same type of afforestations in the region, without prescribed burning, and 2) Same as 1) but with the application of prescribed burning. In order to estimate carbon stocks, and CO2 removals and emissions, we followed the directions given for GHG´s inventories on the AFOLU sector of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data of afforested area, thinnings, and biomass growth were taken from previous surveys in the study area. Downed dead wood and litter (Forest Fuel Load, FFL) was estimated adjusting equations fitted to those fuels, based on field data. Results show that comparing the two scenarios, prescribed burning reduced CO2 emissions by 44% as compared to the situation without prescribed burnings. Prescribed burning emissions represented about 12% of the total emissions (prescribed burning plus wildfires). Furthermore, avoided wildfires by prescribed burnings allowed an additional 78% GHG's emission mitigation due to extra biomass growth, and its emission mitigation could be kept positive by increasing the treated area several times the used here. In summary, prescribed burnings probed to be a management practice that could not only help prevent wildfires to achieve productive objectives, but also an efficient tool to mitigate worldwide GHG’s emissions.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.1-1.1-36 List and classification of the existing EU and national forest legislation and national policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires /
Language: English
Description: A compilation and classification was made of existing regulations and policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires, both in North African countries and for Europe. Since wildland fire issues are mainly dealt within national forest policies, this analysis has mainly focused on the national scale, although the existence of different multilevel governance structures make it necessary to address the issue on a regional level in decentralized countries. Thus, three types of regulatory texts are identified as relevant for the Integrated Wildland Fire Management: (i) Basic Forest Legislation, (ii) Basic Wildland Fire Legislation, and (iii) Specific Legislation on the Use of Fire. Concerning policy instruments, two planning documents have been considered: National/Regional Forest Programmes and specific plans concerning defence and protection against wildfires. Its typology depends on (i) the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies, and (ii) the responsibility allocation within each national governance structure (situation of decentralization). The compilation and classification of these documents was based on the information obtained from a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission, and on other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The review of existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments in 21 EU countries and three North African countries has identified the following key issues: (1) The existence of a range of definitions related to wildland fire management, with different meanings in different European settings as well as differing legal terminology for these terms. (2) The importance of the structure of national governance. The degree of decentralization will determine where the responsibilities are allocated and how they are developed. Therefore, the structure of national governance will be one of the main factors guiding future assessment of national forest policies. (3) The influence of the European Union in national forest policies through EU regulations dealing with specific aspects of the forest sector or forest-related issues, as a complement to national activities, where necessary. (4) There is a great diversity among the regulatory texts and policy instruments related to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires in European and North African countries, due to the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies and the different wildfire risk in each national/regional context. (5) Few of the analysed countries have a specific wildland fire law or regulation. Most of them deal with wildfires within their Forest Laws, through a specific chapter dedicated to wildfires (Southern countries) or in a general chapter on forest protection (Northern countries). (6) There are some countries that do not yet have a specific policy for wildland fires, but progress on forest policy is noted in all the countries included in the report. (7) The compilation of policy instruments shows that 12 of 17 countries considered in the document have a specific wildland fire plan or strategy; these are often linked to national forest policy. (8) Regulation of the use of fire in Europe, although extensive, has focused almost exclusively on the regulation of activities that involve the use of fire in wildland areas or close to these areas (i.e. fire for recreation, alimentation purposes or traditional rural practices). However, fire use for forest management, wildfire prevention and for wildfire suppression receives little attention in legislation. When addressed, it is usually authorized but not regulated, possibly due to the recent development of these perspectives in the continent.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable D.7.1-1-2 Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy instruments concerning integrated wildland fire management in the EU, in European Member States and in North African countries /
Language: English
Description: Wildfires are one of the main risks affecting European forests, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Socio-economic changes, some forest management actions and other policy measures outside the forest sector (i.e. environmental and nature protection policies) have generally influenced the flammability of ecosystems and increased the risk of large wildfires. Policy and legislation have great relevance in fire management in order to face the new realities that are bringing about fundamental changes within the forest sector. This document is the second step in the analysis process of the existing European and national legislation and policy instruments with reference to wildland fires. The first step was the compilation and classification of the related documents. This document presents the assessment of the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and policy outputs in order to consider their contributions to integrated wildland fire management. The assessment is based on the information obtained through a questionnaire sent to the national representatives of the Expert Group on Forest Fires (a group linked to the European Forest Fire Information System, EFFIS, established by the Joint Research Centre, JRC, of the European Commission), national fire technicians and other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. The territorial scope covers the European Union including its 27 Member States and a representation of the North African countries through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, not all the EU-countries are included in the present document due to the lack of official information. The scales considered for the analysis are the European Union context and the national level. The assessment of the wildfire related legislation and policy instruments has tried to address, considering not only the sometimes limited information available but also, and most important, the general descriptive and self-complementary tone of the primary material analyzed, the following issues: (1) Are existing legislation and policies adapted to the specific national contexts? (2) Are policies and legislations implemented and enforced correctly? (3) Are national policies iterative and participatory processes? Is the legal framework open to revision and dynamic? (4) Which are the major fire-related issues considered in order to achieve Integrated Wildland Fire Management? (5) Is there effective cross-sectoral coordination among the different organizations working on wildland fires? (6) The responsibility for reducing the likelihood and consequence of wildfires is appropriately shared between the public administration and private land owners/managers. As a result of the analysis of the existing wildland fire legal and policy instruments the following strengths and weakness have been identified: (1) There are shortcomings in national regulations that need to be sorted out in order to provide a useful, self-contained and common wildfire legal framework for the Member States. This statement is especially evident as regards prescribed fire and suppression fire regulations. (2) Even though the European legislation has contributed to homogenize national legal frameworks, there are still important differences among countries. The comprehensiveness and scope of national regulations is above all different if Mediterranean countries (including France and Bulgaria, which share similar problems) are compared with other European countries. (3) Most forestry-related documents hardly ever mention wildfire management. In fact, there are some countries that do not have a specific policy for wildland fires yet, but some progress is to be noticed in all countries as wildfires are becoming a growing problem. (4) The diverse risk severity of wildfires in the national contexts and the different political and administrative systems existing in each country justify to some extent the differing scope of each country's national legal and policy instruments. Besides, the vagueness of the concept of sustainable forest management allows for the introduction of taylored practices in different contexts, let alone the reference to the diverse environmental circumstances in Europe that many that EU documents have incorporated. (5)Lack of an effective coordination among the different units dealing with wildland fires is clearly a weak point. Further, problems of coordination are aggravated by the fact that many countries have federal systems (multilevel governance frequently leads to time-consuming processes and sub-optimal results) or are undergoing decentralization trends. (6) Regarding community-based cooperation, organized groups of local stakeholders are emerging especially in Mediterranean countries. These groups contribute to fire management as a result of instrumental motivation, or self-interest. Furthermore, some common ecological and socio-economical patterns have been recognised at the regional level, which will be used to provide recommendations for the future and to set the basis for a new legislation and policy measures relative to integrated wildland fire management, adapted to each territorial context.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.1-2.1 List and classification of the existing EU and national policy instruments with reference to wildland, suppression or prescribed fires /
Language: English
Description: This report was prepared as part of IP FIRE PARADOX (2006-2010), in the section related with Policies and Practices Assessment (Module 7). The overall objective of the FIRE PARADOX project is to set the basis for the analysis of wildfire policy instruments at the national and European level in order to provide recommendations for long-term policy measures and to encourage a shift towards integrated wildland fire management adapted to specific territorial contexts. For this purpose, it was necessary to compile, list and classify the existing policy instruments in North African countries and on the pan-European scale with reference to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires. In Europe, there is no common forest policy. The development of forest policies, and therefore wildland fire issues, is the responsibility of Member States. However, the European Union can have an influence directly or indirectly and complement national forest policy processes through the approval of regulations, directives and action plans. As wildland fire issues are mainly dealt with as a part of national forest policies, the existence and typology of the national forest planning documents depends on (¡) the different rhythms and evolving stages of the forest policies and (ii) the responsibility allocation within each national governance structure (situation of decentralization). Two planning documents comprise the main policy instruments in relation with wildfires: National/Regional Forest Programmes and specific plans concerning defence and protection against wildfires. The compilation and classification of these documents is based on the information obtained through a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission, and other relevant databases with information about wildfires and national forest policies. This review of existing wildland fire policy instruments has identified the following key issues: • There is a wide range of definitions of wildland fire topics among the different countries considered in the report. Each uses its own terminology, and in many cases the meaning of terminology is not set forth in law. Carrying out a review of documents from a large number of countries demonstrated the importance of setting clear definitions for basic terms. • The structure of national governance is crucial. The degree of decentralization determines where responsibilities are allocated and how they are developed. Therefore, multilevel governance structure will be one of the main factors guiding future assessment of national forest policies. • There are some countries that do not yet have a specific policy for wildland fires, but progress on forest policy is noted in all the countries included in the report. • The compilation of policy instruments shows that 8 of 12 countries considered in the document have a specific wildland fire plan or strategy; these are often linked to national forest policy. There is a great diversity among the existing policy instruments related to wildland, suppression and prescribed fires in European and North African countries. The risk severity of wildfires in the national contexts and the different political and administrative systems existing in each country justify the differing scope of each country’s national policy instruments. Here, we present a first version of the list and classification of the national policy instruments based on the information obtained from Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Tunisia.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D 7.1-3.7 Guidelines to mitigate personal risk in prescribed burning and suppression fire /
Language: English
Description: This report is a contribution to define the major measures in job hazard abatement actions that should be implemented when we use fire as either vegetation management or suppression tool. Both prescribed fire and suppression fires are the updated versions of several traditional practices. This modern and technical use involves safety items for both fire workers and nearby residents. If we accept that a major move towards solving the fire paradox is using fire wisely, we should work on best job hazard abatement actions. To do so, we will address in this study, two main constraints: (1) the opposition and distrust from both the workers who have to apply these techniques (i.e., firefighters, land managers, policy makers), and residents and others stakeholders who may be affected by smoke or fire; and (2) the fact that European laws (and from other countries too) mandate proper work in safety issues. The first problem to be solved is the lacking of specific regulations regarding fire use (in many countries) in both forestry and labor ruling. Some people do consider this equal to formal exclusion of fire use. On the contrary, we propose to go beyond and apply the general ruling from EEC Directive 81/391. In doing so, we will promote the developing of specific regulations regarding fire use, like there are in other economic activities in both governmental and private sectors.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.4-1 Review report on emissions mitigation through prescribed burning /
Language: English
Description: Forest fires have the potential to feed back to global climate change because of the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The amount of biomass burning over the past 100 years has increased dramatically and is now recognised as a significant global source of atmospheric emissions. The techniques that are used to reduce the risk of destructive wildfires, such as prescribed burning, also have the potential of mitigating carbon emissions in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The current study reviews the importance of accounting for emissions from forest fires and shows that prescribed burning can be a means of reducing carbon emissions. However, very limited data are available on European scale to fully explore its potential. The limited studies suggest that significant reductions can be obtained and that prescribed burning can be a viable option for mitigating CO2 emissions in fire prone countries. The present analyses show that the potential reduction attained by such techniques as a percentage of the reduction in emissions required by the Kyoto Protocol varies from country to country. Out of the 33 countries investigated, in only one the requirements of the Kyoto could potentially be achieved by applying prescribed burning, while three other nations showed a potential reduction of 4-8% of the Kyoto requirements. The majority showed a reduction of less than 2%. This implies that prescribed burning can only make a significant contribution in those countries with high fire occurrence. Over a five year period the emissions from wildfires in the European region were estimated to be 11 million tonnes of CO2 per year, while with prescribed burning application this was approximately six million tonnes, a potential reduction of almost 50%. This means that for countries in the Mediterranean region it may be worthwhile to account for the reduction in emissions obtained when such techniques are applied.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: COST Action FP0701. Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe /
Language: English
Description: Cost Action FP0701, Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe, is a network of researchers and practitioners working in the field of fire ecology and forest management from all around Europe. The action commenced in May 2008 and will continue for four years. The main objective of this Action is to develop and disseminate scientifically-based decision criteria for post-fire management, applicable from stand-level to landscape-level planning. The short-term expected result is to increase the scientific basis for undertaking appropriate post-fire management practices in Southern Europe; the long-term expected result is to improve the effectiveness in restoring burned areas and reduce fire hazard in European forests and landscapes.
Date:
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats, DataSource]
Publisher:
Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable D2.3-6-45 Fire impact on trees and shrubs: final achievements /
Language: English
Description: A series of fire experiments were conducted in the laboratory in the frame of Activity WP2.3.3 of FIRE PARADOX, Fire impacts on trees, to better understand the physical mechanisms of fire effects on tree boles and to produce data for testing of fire behaviour models. This Deliverable presents a description of the different experimental methods and the results of the experiments conducted in this Activity. The document is divided in two main sections, taking into account the scale of the experimental setups: (i) Indoor laboratory fires carried out in a low speed wind tunnel, on the mutual influence between a surface fire and a tree trunk. Variations of rate of spread, flame height and flame angle in a fuel bed without a trunk and in a fuel bed with a trunk were analysed (Fig. I). Profiles of temperatures with time and qualitative results were also obtained. (ii) Outdoor laboratory fires conducted in a wind tunnel. In these experiments, the influence of the scale of the device was tested, temperature data obtained using different instruments were compared and the interaction between a fire front and a pine trunk (Fig.II) was analysed. The thermal conditions at the boundary of the tree trunk were characterized by means of thermocouples and infrared cameras (Fig. III). Besides, an approximation to estimate Heat Release Rate of a fuel bed in outdoor laboratory conditions, using custom-made thermopiles previously calibrated in a Mass Loss Calorimeter has been carried out (Fig. IV).
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.1-1.3-43 Basis to start the process for a proposal of a new legislation at EU level /
Language: English
Description: The previous deliverables (D.7.1.-1.1 and D.7.1-1.2) that review and assess the legislation and policy instruments concerning integrated wildland fire management (IWM) have identified the components of the legal frameworks, the existing legal gaps and the contribution of forest policies to IWM at European and national levels. Based on this previous work, deliverable D7.1-1.3 will focus on establishing the basis from which to start a proposal for new legislation in order to achieve an integrated wildland fire management adapted to the European context.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.1-3.1 Collection, classification and mapping of the current prescribed fire and suppression fire practices in Europe /
Language: English
Description: This document is the first step in the research on prescribed burning and suppression fire practices in European and North African countries, which will be followed by several deliverables: (i) an in-depth analysis of this type of practices, taking into consideration legal and political issues, as well as the influence of the spatial and socioeconomic factors, to be delivered in February of 2008; (ii) the elaboration of recommendations for the development of prescribed burning and suppression fire practices in European and North African countries, at the regional scale, in February of 2009; (iii) and finally a recording system and a handbook of good practices related to both uses, foreseen for August of 2009.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable 7.2-2-39 Assessment of the efficiency factors of wildfire detection systems for timely interventions in European countries /
Language: English
Description: In order to minimize the damages associated to wildfire is crucial to have, primarily, a good prevention. When this fails, a fast and accurate detection should help an efficient first-attack followed, if everything fails, by a strong fire-fighting. This deliverable presents the results from 5 study cases of a questionnaire regarding fire detection, sent to the forest experts group of the European Community, Morocco and Tunisia. It also presents the analysis of fire detection efficiency in southwestern European countries. In this work the official fire detection systems were divided in three major groups: Terrestrial detection systems – fixed ground surveillance (lookout towers) and mobile ground surveillance (mobile brigades); Aerial detection – helicopters, airplanes; New technologies for fire detection – Infrared and video cameras, remote sensing, laser detection, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s), satellites. The questionnaire replies received until April 2008 includes 16 countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Tunisia. According to the questionnaire results, Austria is the only country that does not present any detection system. All the others fifteen countries use at least one of the mentioned detection systems. The most common detection systems are lookout towers, used by thirteen countries (87%), followed by the mobile brigades with eleven answers (73%). Also in the field of the terrestrial detection, seven countries (47%) have volunteer programs that complement the official terrestrial detection. France, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Slovenia use video surveillance together with lookout towers networks. The use of airplanes and helicopters for aerial vigilance is not very frequent. Only eight countries use airplanes and only Italy and Spain use helicopters for this purpose. Sweden is the only country that relies solely on airplanes for surveillance actions. Although the different detections systems complement each other, just seven countries use both terrestrial and aerial systems. While much research has been done in the past years, from fifteen countries merely France, Italy Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain utilize some new technologies to complement the traditional means. Most of these countries are using pilot projects to evaluate their efficiency. For instance, France is working with two projects, however one was terminated because of its unreliability. The second project is being tested, but still needs significant improvements before being made available for extensive use. Spain is the country that is testing more new technologies have been implemented and, to our knowledge, the only one in Europe that use satellite imagery for meteorological prediction and hot spot detection; other countries also mentioned this system, but only to follow the development of a fire and to quantify the burnt area. Wildfire detection in the Iberian Peninsula during the period 2001-2007 were mainly detected by the population (88% in Portugal and 56% in Spain). The official detection systems are still very important but play a secondary role, especially in Portugal, where they were responsible for only 12% of detected wildfires (44% in Spain). The ground fixed detection systems, mainly constituted by lookouts, were the main official detection system in both countries, being responsible for 11% and 28% of all fires detected in Portugal and Spain, respectively. However, it is interesting to notice that in Portugal the importance of lookouts was much higher if we consider the fires that resulted in large burned areas. At the national level, the ground mobile systems only have a relevant expression in Spain, where they were responsible for 16% of detections (less than 1% in Portugal), but like lookouts they can be much more important at the regional level. The aerial detection systems were responsible in both countries for less than 1% of all wildfire detections.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.3-1 Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and spatial policy instruments concerning wildfire integrated management in the EU, in European member states and in North African countries /
Language: English
Description: This report has been prepared as part of IP FIRE PARADOX (2006-2010), in the section related with Policies and Practices Assessment (Module 7). The overall objective of the Fire Paradox project is to set the basis for the analysis of wildfire policy instruments at the national and European level in order to provide recommendations for long-term policy measures and to encourage a shift towards integrated wildland fire management adapted to specific territorial contexts. For this purpose, apart from sectoral policies which have the responsibility for national wildland fire management (forest and civil protection), it is considered necessary to analyse other public policies with influence in structural causes affecting wildland fires, which are out of the sectoral scope and are basic for wildfire initiation and propagation. Taking into account a cross-sectoral approach is even more crucial in the European context since no European Union (EU) Treaty provides for a comprehensive common forest policy to all member states but recognizes the need to support them in forest related issues through other EU policies. Hence, this study includes an assessment of a selection of public policies with greater incidence in wildland fire management: spatial planning, agricultural and rural development policies, energy policy and environmental policy, focused in: i) identifying cross-sectoral policy impacts influencing wildfire prevention and propagation ii) assessing main strength and weaknesses they have for Integrated Wildland Fire Management. Results are presented at two levels: EU level and National level, the latter with two scales of detail through a pan-European and North African comparative assessment and national in-depth study cases. The assessment is based on a review of literature and bibliographical references, the analysis of regulatory and planning instruments at the EU, national and regional level, and complementarily, a questionnaire sent to the national experts of the Working Group of Forest Fire Prevention Experts (WGFFP), an informal working group composed by experts from the national authorities nominated by the EU Member States and the European Commission. The report has identified some common findings about the role for territorial policies concerning integrated wildland fire management at the national and European level:  A cross-sectoral approach provides the opportunity to study in-depth the structural causes affecting wildland fires as well as for knowing the possibilities for intervention upon these.  It is necessary to assess the level of coincidence between the public policies’ objectives regarding wildland fires, that is, to what extent there are complementary or conflictive relations among these. Likewise, it is important to consider the potential negative impacts: spatial planning guidelines which may set the conditions for more devastating fires.  The adoption of a multilevel approach is needed when assessing the impact of public policies on wildland fire management: the main orientation stemming form the European Union, the State’s national regulatory framework and finally, the implementation at the regional and local level.  There is strong conviction about the role that territorial policies should play in solving the wildfire problem, mainly in the prevention and propagation stages. Environmental and rural development policies are identified as those with most relevant by sectors directly involved in wildland fire management (Forest and Civil Protection)  However territorial policies lack effective implementation due to the subsidiary character, compared to forest and civil protection policies.  There is need for a major spatial approach (vs generic approaches) for territorial policies to achieve a more effective implementation upon wildland fire management. Opportunities derived from new spatial planning paradigms and EU tendencies (i.e.: new energetic priorities, forest value for rural development) should be taken in advance. This document is the first step of the cross-sectoral analysis of territorial policies framed in the project, which will be updated in August 2009. Hence, this first document does not constitute a complete version but an advance of results and the methodology proposed for the different levels of assessment.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable D 7.3-1.1 (UPDATE) Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and spatial policy instruments concerning wildfire integrated management in the EU, in European member states and in North African countries /
Language: English
Description: The report has identified some common findings about the role that territorial policies should play concerning integrated wildland fire management at the national and European level:  Recent communications arising from the European Commission (EC) bring about elements that suggest the beginning of a new period with regard to natural disaster prevention and its management from the different policy perspectives with incidence in this issue. A new period characterized by the inclusion of the risk perspective in the current EU policies and by taking better advantage of existing measures and fundings within the frame of these policies. This should be pursued coordinating both objectives and instruments with a global objective based on a territorial approach: natural disaster prevention and mitigation.  A cross-sectoral approach provides the opportunity to do an in-depth study of the structural causes affecting wildland fires and it also gives the opportunity to get to know the possibilities for an intervention upon these.  It is necessary to assess the level of coincidence between the public policies’ objectives regarding wildland fires, that is, to what extent there are complementary or conflictive aims. Likewise, it is important to consider the potential negative impacts that might derive from these policies: spatial planning guidelines might under certain circumstances set the conditions for more devastating fires.  The adoption of a multilevel approach is needed when assessing the impact of public policies on wildland fire management: main guidelines stemming from the European Union, the regulatory framework coming form the state and sometimes the regional governments and finally, the implementation at the regional and local level.  Territorial policies should play a role in solving the wildfire problem, mainly in the prevention and propagation stages. Environmental and rural development policies are identified as those most directly involved in willand fire management (Forest and Civil Protection)  In spite of their possibilities, territorial policies lack effective implementation due to the subordinated character to forest and civil protection policies with regard to risk management.  A comprehensive spatial approach (vs generic approaches) for territorial policies is badly needed in order to achieve a more effective implementation in wildland fire management. Opportunities that derive from new spatial planning paradigms and EU tendencies (i.e.: new energetic priorities, forest value for rural development) should be considered in advance by risk managers.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: D7.3-2.1 List and review of the selected pilot areas /
Language: English
Description: GENERAL AIM OF THE SELECTED PILOT-AREAS - To evaluate the implementation of territorial policies over a specific area. Assess its applicability depending on the characteristics of the territory and to elaborate corrective proposals - To establish the real possibilities that Territorial Policies have for the intervention in wildfire risk management: its potential, weaknesses and coordination constrains
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable 7.3-2.2 Assessment document on territorial consequences of legislation and spatial policy instruments implementation at the management level. /
Language: English
Description: The approach of this study is linked to content of the deliverable 7.3-1.1: Assessment document on the main strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and spatial policy instruments concerning wildfire integrated management in the EU, in European member states and in North African countries, which objective is to propose a transectorial point of view of the wildfire risk management in order to contribute with valid recomendations for specific territorial contexts. The conclusions obtained at European and national scale (7.3.-1.1) should be complemented with the management of these policies at a local scale, where the real application of these policies is verified, the real coordination problems show up and the coordination and synergy possibilities appear. Related to these precedents, the approach carried on has consisted in the analysis at a local scale of the definition and implementation of these territorial policies that have a direct influence on the conditions of ignition and propagation of wildfires (forest management policies, territorial planning and rural development). It is pretended to carry on a global assessment of the possibilities of public intervention of reducing the risk of an specific area through the joint application of these policies. There have been two case studies carried on. The first one is about the Solsonès region (Catalonia, Spain) and the second one about the forest massif of Tanghaya-Kourt (North of Morocco). In both cases it has been made a territorial and a wildfire incidence characterization in order to analyze the public intervention in the territory through the different plans and policies developed in the area. This approach has allowed evaluating the real possibilities of an intervention over the risk of ignition and propagation of wildfires from a multisectorial view. It has also allowed evaluating the necessary modulation on the definition and application of these policies based on the territorial and socioeconomic characteristics of specific intervention areas. All of it has made possible to formulate a series of conclusions and recommendations about policies coordination and synergies, as well as about the scale in which should be finally be defined the application of these policies.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable 2.3-1 Fire behaviour in several fuel types: Methods and First results /
Language: English
Description: A series of fire experiments are being conducted in Activity WP2.3.1 of FIRE PARADOX, Wildfire behaviour, both in laboratory and in the field, to better understand the mechanisms of fire propagation and to produce data for testing of fire behaviour models. This Deliverable presents a description of the different experimental methods, as well as the first results of the experiments conducted in this Activity. The document is divided in three main sections, taking into account the scale of the devices: (i) Indoor laboratory fires carried out in a low speed wind tunnel, in beds of Pinus pinaster, P. halepensis and P. pinea needles. Variations of rate of spread, flame height and flame angle with wind velocity (Fig. I), as well as profiles of temperatures with time were analysed in these tests. (ii) Outdoor laboratory fires conducted in a wind tunnel in shrubland fuels, to study vertical propagation of fire. In these experiments, effects of fuel vertical discontinuity, absence or presence of litter layer, wind velocity and type of ignition source were tested (Fig. II). IR imaging analysis of fire transition was also accomplished (Fig. III). (iii) Field experimental fires conducted in kermes oak garrigue in South of France (Fig. IV), and in shrubland fuels in the Chaco Region, Argentina (Fig. V). In these burns, a fuel description was carried out. During the burns, meteorological conditions were monitored, and fire behaviour descriptors were obtained.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable 2.3-4 Fire behaviour in several fuel types: final achievements /
Language: English
Description: Fire experiments have been conducted in different surface fuels, both in laboratory and in the field. These experiments aim at understanding fire behaviour and producing data for testing of fire behaviour models. Indoor laboratory fires were carried out in three different pine needle fuel beds (Pinus pinaster, P. halepensis and P. pinea) in a low speed wind tunnel. Variations of rate of spread, flame height and flame angle with wind velocity, as well as profiles of temperatures with time, are analysed in these tests. Correlations between these variables are found to be close to earlier published correlations and the observed behaviour is interpreted as a result of a balance between wind forces and buoyant forces. Outdoor laboratory fires were carried out in a wind tunnel in a shrubland fuel, to study the vertical propagation of fire. Indeed it is important to determine which variables condition capability of a shrubland to sustain a high fire intensity burning the whole surface fuel layer. Fires were conducted with and with no pine dead needle fuel bed underneath the shrub layer and with and with no discontinuity between the needle layer and the shrub layer above. Under the wind conditions of these experiments (no wind and weak wind) fire does not propagate if there is no needle layer below the shrub layer. When there is a needle layer, the success of vertical propagation to the shrub layer was found to correlate with the maximum temperature measured in the lower part of the shrub layer. It is unclear however whether the temperature level determines the vertical propagation or is a consequence of this vertical propagation. Other variables, namely fuel discontinuity, wind or fuel moisture content, are not found to be explanatory of the vertical propagation in the statistical analysis. Four field experimental fires were conducted in 16 m diameter hexagonal plots selected in a uniform shrubland fuel type (Quercus coccifera garrigue) under 4-6 m/s wind speeds, in the South of France. In addition to rate of spread and fuel consumption, temperatures were measured within the plots at the top of the vegetation layer and radiant heat fluxes were measured outside the plots. Analysis of these data suggests that convective heating plays a dominant role in the propagation of these fires. Although two fires were conducted under low shrub moisture content and two under high shrub moisture content, the effect of fuel moisture on the rate of spread is found to be small with respect to the effect of fuel moisture on the heat of fuel ignition. Two hypothesis are proposed to explain this result. Two sets of six fires each in 30 x 30 m plots were conducted in two grassland fuel types in the Chaco region in Argentina. Fire spread about 30 % faster in the first grassland type, while wind speed was two times lower and fuel bulk density was two times higher. This effect is attributed to the fine fuel load, which was more than two times higher in the first grassland type. This result is an addition to the contradictory results on fuel load effect existing in the literature. It is also suggested that differences in plant architecture could explain the rate of spread variation.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Deliverable D2.3-6-45 Fire impact on trees and shrubs: final achievements /
Language: English
Description: A series of fire experiments were conducted in the laboratory in the frame of Activity WP2.3.3 of FIRE PARADOX, Fire impacts on trees, to better understand the physical mechanisms of fire effects on tree boles and to produce data for testing of fire behaviour models. This Deliverable presents a description of the different experimental methods and the results of the experiments conducted in this Activity.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher:
Title: Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe /
Language: English
Description: Prescribed burning is the planned application of fire to achieve forest and wildland management goals. The practice of prescribed burning demands skills and experience and is always under public scrutiny. The wise use of fire should maximize the benefits of burning while avoiding or minimizing its negative impacts. Consequently, prescribed burning is framed by land management goals and site-specific treatment objectives and is conditioned by both environmental and social restrictions. The decision-making and planning process can thus benefit from decision-support tools that are expected to expand and strengthen the technical proficiency of the practitioners. The inception and adoption of prescribed burning by managers and management organizations is relatively new in Europe and dates back to the early 1980s. The use of prescribed burning is geographically restricted and its potential to manage wildlands is still largely unfulfilled, especially in forested areas. The political and socio-economic environment is decisive, but there is a need for more basic knowledge and operational guidelines to assist prescribed burning programs. The FIRE PARADOX project directed most of its effort to technological development, training and dissemination. As one of the outcomes, this handbook compiles, organizes and synthesizes the information — both qualitative and quantitative — relevant to burning prescriptions in European ecosystems, i.e. the conditions desired for the burn and that will fulfil the pre-defined treatment objectives. The conceptual framework to plan, carry out and evaluate a burn operation in Figure 1 is implicit in the handbook. Knowledge that was dispersed or needed to be formalized is aggregated and digested. The handbook has been developed by: (1) Examining the available technical information, i.e. burning guides and best practices (e.g. Vega et al. 2001, Fernandes et al. 2002, Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department 2008); (2) Collecting prescriptions from the agencies and individuals involved in prescribed burning management or research in Europe; (3) Collecting information from the FIRE PARADOX prescribed burning demonstration sites; (4) Using models of fire behaviour and effects to generate burn prescriptions to achieve more generic or more specific treatment goals. The handbook gathers prescriptions from all around Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden). The environments range from subtropical (Canary islands) to boreal (Sweden). The information is organized and presented in a hierarchy that considers vegetation type, country or region, and management objective. Most data respects to the application of fire to decrease fuel hazard or to manage habitats for pastoral or nature conservation purposes in diverse types of shrubland and pine woodland. Included in the handbook are ranges for the desired weather and moisture conditions and fire behaviour and effects, as well as ignition patterns and the return interval for the treatments. Two types of prescriptions are presented, respectively: (1) to achieve a broad goal, e.g. renew pastures; or (2) to attain a specific treatment objective, usually defined in quantitative terms, e.g. reduce fuel load by 70%. The technological solutions to plan prescribed fire operations vary across Europe. General burning windows consisting of ranges in weather conditions or in fire danger rating indexes (like in Sweden, Germany and Portugal) are commonplace. In Catalonia, Spain, six standard prescriptions are individualized based on fuel availability and wind speed. USDA Forest Service fire simulation tools are used in Spain and Portugal to prepare site-specific prescriptions, which include sets of values (minimum, preferred, maximum) for weather conditions, fuel moisture contents, fire behaviour characteristics and selected fire effects. In Portugal, the PiroPinus tool (Fernandes 2003) was developed to assist in planning and evaluating the results of prescribed underburning in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) stands. Prescribed burning practitioners are the main target of the ‘Handbook to Plan and Use Prescribed Burning in Europe’ and can benchmark their practice against the recommendations, familiarize with and try prescriptions developed elsewhere for the same objective and provide input towards improvement and refinement. In the course of exchanges between regions and countries, this handbook is expected to constitute a rapid reference guide for the ‘outsiders’. Educational organizations and environmental consultants will also benefit. The handbook will naturally find application in prescribed burning training and outreach, and can provide a framework to plan research on fire ecology topics. We expect that this handbook will contribute both to disseminate and to improve the wise use of fire across Europe.
Date:
TypeFormat:
Publisher: