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Title: Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Grupo de Fogos Florestais / Universidad de Trás-os-Montes a Alto Douro (UTAD), Forest Fire Group
Language: Portuguese
Description: The Forest Fire Group is an activity of the Department of Forest and Landscape at the Universidad de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD). The Forest Fire Group was established in 1983 and has undertaken research in fuel and fire behavior modeling, fire risk and fire danger index, preventive silviculture and fuel management, controlled fire, adaptation and vulnerability of forests to fire.
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Title: FIRE PARADOX Project Summary / An innovative approach of integrated wildland fire management regulating the wildfire problem by the wise use of fire: solving the fire paradox
Language: English
Description: Man has always used fire in nature but its misuse can end in catastrophe and, as a Finnish proverb says, "fire is a bad master but a good servant". Contemporary trends of fuel accumulation on the landscape caused by land abandonment are aggravated by efficient fire suppression, with the paradoxical effect of increasing the risk of large and devastating wildfires in the Mediterranean Basin. No matter how sophisticated it is fire fighting technology cannot cope with fire events occurring under extreme weather conditions, as the summers of 2003, 2004 and 2005 have shown. Past European research and practical experience in various countries highlight the need to design fire management and wildfire hazard mitigation policies adapted to the European situation. It is the ambition of FIRE PARADOX to contribute actively to set the bases for a fire management policy that would prevent the current disastrous social, economical and environmental consequences of wildfires in southern Europe.
Date: 20/02/2007
TypeFormat: [Resource Types and Formats,OfficeDocument,TextDoc,Adobe Acrobat [.pdf]]
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Title: D3.3.2 / deliverable
Language: English
Description: The first stage of the fuel database is presented.
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Title: Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) /
Language: English
Description: The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) provides a global portal for wildland fire documentation, information and monitoring and is publicly accessible through the Internet. The regularly updated national to global wildland fire products of the GFMC are generated by a worldwide network of cooperating institutions. The online and offline products include: (1) Early warning of fire danger and near-real time monitoring of fire events, (2) Interpretation, synthesis and archive of global fire information, (3) Support of local, national and international entities to develop long-term strategies or policies for wildland fire management, (4) Serve as advisory body to the UN system through the coordination of the UN-ISDR Wildland Fire Advisory Group and the ISDR Global Wildland Fire Network, (5) Emergency hotline and liaison capabilities for providing assistance for rapid assessment and decision support in response to wildland fire emergencies.
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Title: Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Laboratorio di ecologia applicata / Laboratory of applied ecology
Language: English
Description: Research activities of the Laboratory of applied ecology comprise modeling, fire ecology, habitats and flora, plant ecology and animal ecology. The fire ecology field covers post-fire succession, fire statistical analysis, and fire fighting planning.
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Title: Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh) / MAICh
Language: English
Description: The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh) is a constituent Institute of the International Centre of Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies. It is dedicated to postgraduate and specialized education, applied research and the development of Mediterranean agriculture. A fire related MSc can be obtained within the Environmental Management programme. The postgraduate programme of Environmental Management offers the possibility to undertake research in forest fires and is equipped with a laboratory of geographic information systems, a forest fire wind tunnel simulator, and a natural objects spectroradiometry identification unit.
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Title: Land use change interactions with fire in Mediterranean Landscapes (LUCIFER) / LUCIFER
Language: English
Description: The project aimed to assess the interactions between fire and landscape structures in fire-prone areas in Mediterranean countries. Fire effects on the ecosystems and their influence on species changes were evaluated. Based on past landscapes and fire incidence, models of landscape change and its significance for species dynamics were developed to evaluate fire risk and other threats to the ecosystem. The project ran from 1996 to 2000.
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Title: EU-FIRE: Innovative optoelectronic and acoustic sensing technologies for large scale forest fire long term monitoring / EU-FIRE
Language: English
Description: The EU-FIRE project has the objective to design a new forest fires monitoring system able to guarantee accurate and continuous surveillance and forecasting, immediate detection of fire beginnings, monitoring of the fire evolution, and timely exchange of information from fire fronts. The EU-FIRE integrated prototype is based on 3 components: a microphones system for volumetric scanning; fibre optic senscors networks for the detection of changes in the parameters associated to fire, such as temperature and gaseous emissions; and a Local Control Unit able to integrate data from acoustic and optoelectronic sensors. The results will lead, in the mid-term, to the provision of improved performance detection systems, and, in the long term, to the establishment of a common European model for forest fire monitoring.
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Title: University of Zurich, Department of Geography /
Language: English
Description: The unit Geographic Information Systems (GIS) of the Department of Geography at the University of Zurich is working on the development of fundamental methods and techniques in Geographic Information Science, as well as their application in the environment and especially in protected areas. This research is carried out within three research groups: Digital Cartography and Mobile Systems, Digital Terrain Modeling, and Environmental Geoinformatics. Within the scope of Environmental Geoinformatics fire science projects have been conducted.
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Title: Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP) / CIEFAP
Language: Spanish
Description: CIEFAP is a scientific, educational institution which aims to foster the development of the region by the sustainable use of its native forests and plantations, the preservation of the environment and the promotion of ecotourism through knowledge generation and transfer. The study area of the Center is the Andean zone of Patagonia Argentina. Fire research is undertaken within the four thematic axes of conservation and forest management, forest protection, territorial planning, and wood technology.
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Title: University of Lleida - Unit of Forest Fires (UL-UFF) / UL-UFF
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: The mission of UL-UFF is to provide academic training for graduate and undergraduate students and conduct scientific research in the fields of wildland fire science, forest ecology, and forest management. UL-UFF offers a master degree in wildland fire management and is involved in the MSc of European Forestry.Furthermore, wildland fire software, photos and videos on prescribed burning and fire fighting can be found on the website.
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Title: Design of a frame work for producing and providing earth observation based information services for forest fires management at European and local levels (Control Fire Sat) / Control Fire Sat Project
Language: English
Description: The aim of the CFS Project was the provision of real-time Earth Observation data to be used in forest fire management. A pre-operational warning and information system was developed. CFS delivered four customized products derived from NOAA-AVHRR data: daily fire risk maps; a fire detection and warning system operating during night hours; monitoring of the fire front evolution during a fire event, and a near real-time web delivery system for the previous products. Activities covered the summer seasons of 1998 and 1999 for Greece, Spain and France. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: Prescribed burning as a tool for the Mediterranean region - a management approach (FIRE TORCH) / FIRE TORCH
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The global objective of the FIRE TORCH project was to improve the prescribed burning decision making process, creating the operational basis that will support an extensive use of the technique. The four general objectives were: to identify and analyze the opportunities for prescribed fire development; to model prescribed burning environmental effects and operational know-how; to develop a Decision Support System focusing on the different stages of a burning operation: prescription, execution and evaluation; and to contribute to the technique diffusion and practitioners training. As results a field guide for managers to appraise information necessary to conduct a prescribed burn, and a training and decision support system consisting of integrated software tools were developed. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: Euromediterranean Wildland Fire Laboratory - EUFIRELAB / EUFIRELAB
Language: EnglishFinnishFrenchGreekItalianPortugueseSpanish
Description: The EUFIRELAB is a wall-less laboratory for wildland fire sciences and technologies in the euromediterranean region that enables knowledge and data exchange. The research units are divided into fuel description and modelling; wildland fire behavior modelling; fire ecology; socio-economy; decision support tools; meteorology; fire risks; fire suppression and wildland urban interfaces management. It aims to provide up-dated states of the art, to develop common methodologies and to propose answers to end-users. The products provided on the website are an E-library, E-observatories, news, forums, deliverables, jobs and CV, and specific studies related to wildland fire. The project ran from 2002 to 2006.
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Title: BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering / BRE
Language: English
Description: The BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering is part of the Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. The research fire centre exists to: support today's fire safety with multidisciplinary research; provide education in Fire Safety Engineering and Structural Fire Engineering; deliver fire safety consultancy services to industry and other consultancies; disseminate information about advances and research in fire safety engineering through courses, symposia and publications. A variety of research projects from detailed studies of fundamental combustion processes through to the application of fire safety engineering in practice is performed. Numerical modelling work as well as experimental research is carried out.
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Title: Eurasian Fire in Nature Conservation Network (EFNCN) / EFNCN
Language: English
Description: The EFNCN provides a platform and networking mechanism for those who actively apply or conduct research in prescribed burning for the purpose of nature conservation (biodiversity management, habitat management), landscape management and forestry. The region of interest is temperate-boreal Eurasia and the adjoining countries of Southeast Europe, Caucasus, Central and Northeast Asia. A review on the cultural fire history and fire ecology of Central Northern Europe is presented on this site with an extensive list of bibliography as well as a list of EFNCN and related meetings.
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Title: Pacific Forest Forum (PFF) / PFF
Language: EnglishRussian
Description: PFF is a non-governmental organization created by a group of forest specialists. PFF implements: education and training; research work; participation in Russian and international programs and projects; organization of conferences, seminars, meetings both domestic and international; printing of scientific materials, books, articles; field expeditions and experiments; consultation services; information dissemination; capacity building in the Northeast Asia, etc., in the field of forestry, forest fires and forest fire management, and international research collaboration.
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Title: Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) / FFS
Language: English
Description: The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program of the Rocky Mountain Research Station is located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The Program conducts international, cutting edge work in wildland fire research from fire physics to fire ecology. The Program performs work under its national charter to conduct fundamental and applied research relating to wildland fire processes, terrestrial and atmospheric effects of fire, and ecological adaptations to fire. In addition, the Program develops associated knowledge tools and applications for both managers and scientists. Original research includes: fire behavior prediction modeling, soil heating modeling and effects, landscape fire ecosystem dynamics, smoke emissions and dispersion modeling, and fire danger rating.
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Title: US Forest Service Fire and Aviation Management /
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Aviation Management part of the US Forest Service is working in wildland fire management, operations, and research. The website provides a wide range of information and links on various topics from fire equipment, management, suppression, fire science, fire use, prevention and education, publications, news, training, employment, tools and technology, safety, to aviation and other.
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Title: Fire and Environmental Research Application Team (FERA) / FERA
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) informs management of natural resources through research and development in fuels and combustion science, fire and landscape ecology, and integration of the physical and ecological sciences. Detailed information on research projects, studies, publications, products, and news are available on the website.
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Title: CORDIS (Community Research and Development Information Service) / CORDIS
Language: EnglishFrenchGermanItalianPolishSpanish
Description: CORDIS, the Community Research and Development Information Service for Science, Research and Development, is the official source of information on the European seventh framework programme (FP7) calls for proposals. CORDIS is an information space, filled with a huge array of accurate and up-to-date data on European research and development activities and capacities. The site allows searching for projects, partners and results.
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Title: Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre / Bushfire CRC
Language: English
Description: Through the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre (Bushfire CRC) fire and land management agencies across Australia and New Zealand are working closely with researchers in the field of bushfire research. The aim of the Bushfire CRC is to gain a better understanding of the role of fire in the Australian environment. The research program focuses on five inter-related areas of research activity: Safe Prevention, Preparation and Suppression; Management of Fire in the Landscape; Community Self-Sufficiency for Fire Safety; Protection of People and Property; and Education, Training and Communication.
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Title: CSIRO Bushfire Team / Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Language: English
Description: CSIRO bushfire research is improving the understanding of fire, and improving technologies and strategies to save lives and limit damage. CSIRO has been involved in bushfire research for more than forty years. This has focused on: understanding and predicting bushfire behavior; the impact of bushfires on infrastructure; ecological responses to fire; the impact of climate change on bushfire risk; and pollutants and greenhouse gases as a result of bushfires.
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Title: Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) / WFORG)
Language: English
Description: The Wildland Fire Operations Research Group (WFORG) was established in January 2001 in Hinton, Alberta. The WFORG's mission is to work on wildfire operations research, which includes evaluating fire equipment and protective clothing, reviewing and refining fire management systems and addressing current operational issues that have been identified by fire management practitioners within the forest industry. Research outputs are intended to benefit firefighters, fire managers, equipment manufacturers and service agencies.
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Title: Forest Fire Laboratory /
Language: English
Description: The Forest Fire Laboratory in Riverside, California, is a field research facility of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, headquartered in Albany, California. The laboratory is one of two Forest Service Labs in the nation devoted primarily to fire research. The five research units located at the Forest Fire Laboratory conduct research in the broad areas of Air Quality, Fire Science (prescribed fire, fire effects, wildland fire management etc.), and Recreation.
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Title: The Northwest and Alaska Fire Research Clearinghouse (FIREHouse) / FIREHouse
Language: English
Description: FIREHouse is a web-based project providing information about fire science and technology relevant to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Alaska. A goal is to provide "one-stop shopping" for resource managers, decision makers, scientists, students, and communities who want access to the results of efforts to understand and manage fire and fuels on public lands in these regions. It is designed to assist fire programs by facilitating access to fire research and associated information. The website provides online access to: Project and tool descriptions, contact information and links; Online publications; Proposals and study plans; Models; and Metadata.
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Title: PHOENIX /
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: PHOENIX is a regional project centre of the European Forest Institute (EFI). PHOENIX has 18 member institutions from Mediterranean countries. The objectives of the consortium are: (1) to obtain a sound database gathering the state-of-the-art of existing scientific knowledge concerning the fire characteristics of the different forest types and respective species; (2) to develop a set of criteria which can be used to classify forest types in terms of the associated fire hazard and resilience; (3) to define the potential and limitation of the various post-fire management options; (4) to help developing the transfer mechanisms needed between research and its application by end-users. Coordinated by Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves, a research centre of the Instituto Superior de Agronomia in Lisbon, Portugal.
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Title: Núcleo de Investigação Científica de Incêndios Florestais (NICIF) / Centre for Forest Fires Scientific Research [Portugal]
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: NICIF is a Scientific Unit of the University of Coimbra, and carries out research related to the prevention of and the effects of forest fires. The objectives of NICIF include: investigation of forest fires; education of the public (and particularly young people) concerning the importance of the forest, especially with regard to preservation of forests and the prevention of forest fires.
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Title: Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF) / Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications; Centro de Investigación Ecológica y Aplicaciones Forestales
Language: EnglishSpanish
Description: CREAF is an institute dedicated to developing basic and applied research on terrestrial ecology. It is a public consortium established by the Catalan Government, the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), the University of Barcelona and the Institute of Catalan Studies (ICE). Major topics covered by CREAF include: Functional ecology of terrestrial ecosystems; Forest dynamics and management; Plant population biology; Ecological effects of global changes; Landscape ecology; Biodiversity and ecological processes; Fire ecology; Soil restoration; Land planning and sustainability. The following services are available via the CREAF webpages: Forest Information System (SIBosC) (Catalan); Land Cover Map (Catalan); Ecological and Forest Inventory (Catalan); search of CREAF publications database.
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Title: Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves (CEABN) / Centre for Applied Ecology Prof. Baeta Neves
Language: EnglishPortuguese
Description: CEABN is a research centre within the Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon. CEABN is located in the old house of Professor Baeta Neves, a forester after whom the centre is named and who pioneered the issue of Nature Conservation in Portugal. The CEABN team is composed of foresters, biologists and landscape architects most of them specialized in natural resource management. CEABN activities can be divided in 5 working areas that present specific objectives: Biodiversity in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems; Wildlife Management; Fire Ecology and Management; Ecological Design and Landscape Architecture; Agro-Environment Education and Dissemination of Research Results.
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Title: D3.1-2a Review of knowledge gaps and proposal for fuel data collection and test runs /
Language: English
Description: A review of the different aspects of fuel moisture research was conducted. The following knowledge (research) gaps can be identified: (a) The horizontal spatial variability of dead fuel moisture in relation to vegetation (e.g., stand structure, crown closure, stem density, litter and duff depth, etc.) and topographic characteristics (aspect, slope, soil depth and type, etc.) needs to be measured and modelled in the field. (b) The temporal (diurnal and seasonal) variation in dead and live fuel moisture content as related to changes in meteorological parameters (air relative humidity and temperature, insolation and cloudiness, wind speed and duration, etc) needs to be measured in the field for all the dominant Mediterranean fuel types at the species level, to the extent possible. For fire-stricken geographical regions of the Mediterranean Basin, extensive data bases of seasonal fuel moisture data per species or fuel type must be created and, subsequently, converted through statistical analysis to empirical models of fuel moisture prediction, refined for every species or fuel complex. (c) Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) sorption (adsorption and desorption) curves of dead fuels as a function of air relative humidity and temperature need to be created for the fuels of all the dominant species. (d) The fuel moisture timelag (TL) concept needs to be reassessed and measured in dead fuels from different species in relation to the fuel moisture sorption phase (adsorption or desorption), in order to account for the moisture hysteretic effects of dead fuels during the wetting or drying process. (e) A physical model that predicts canopy (crown) live fuel moisture content variations in terms of stand and tree phenological and physiological characteristics and soil water balance has to be formulated. (f) A comparison between actual measurements of dead fuel moisture with the moisture content of fuel analogues (i.e., fuel moisture sticks) is necessary in order to validate the precision of the analogues in fuel moisture assessment. (g) The relationship between dead and live fuel moisture and drought (prolonged period of high temperatures and low air and soil humidity) needs to be further investigated, and in particular, the response of shrub and tree species moisture content to drought. The use of the newly formed SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) drought index might be useful in the correlation with fuel moisture, in addition to the traditionally used KBDI and Palmer indexes. In view of the expected global warming and climatic change, this research aspect of fuel moisture could be very significant in the future. (h) The moisture of extinction (ME) of dead and live fuels must be measured in the field (in situ) with a long series of ignition experiments in different fuel types and, subsequently, correlated with the existing fuel moisture content and meteorological parameters in the field, into regression and probabilistic models. ME values of the most significant Mediterranean fuel types must be measured in the laboratory and in the field. (i) The condensation (water vapour that originates from the atmosphere in the form of dew on the surface of dead fuels) and the latent heat of vaporisation of free water from the fuel particle surface are two terms that are currently neglected and must be taken into account in future physical models of dead fuel moisture content. (j) The optimal temporal (time) step for monitoring vegetation moisture content (greenness) via satellite imagery needs to be determined in dead and live Mediterranean fuel complexes.
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Title: D3.1-4 Fire occurrence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: First results /
Language: English
Description: Sardinia is one of the most fire-prone regions of Italy. The high incidence of fires in Sardinia constitutes a problem in terms of damages and resources management, consequently, for provisional and operational planning, it’s very important to know the wildfire regime characteristics and their linkage with the determinant factors. The study of the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wildfires and the remote-sensed symphenological variables highlighted the role of temporal NDVI signal as a reliable tool for analyzing ecological processes, going beyond the biophysical significance of single-date NDVI values as proxies to photsyntetic activity. The results obtained show that the simultaneous ordering of symphenological variables and fire regime characteristics, based on the spatial distribution of PNV, is consistent with a climatic control that acts on both phenomena. In an evolving landscape, knowing that the wildfires regime is strictly determined by potential natural vegetation phenology can be helpful for monitoring and predicting fires behaviour under changing climatic scenario. Finally, by providing a phytogeographical framework for characterizing fires, the PNV map can be considered a valuable tool for applying research results to fire management policies, since it takes properly into account the underlying determinant factors.
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Title: D3.1-10 Fire occurence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: final results (merged with D3.1-9) /
Language: English
Description: Fire is a basic ecological factor that contributes to determine vegetation diversity and dynamics in time and space. Fuel characteristics play an essential role in fire ignition and propagation; at the landscape scale fuel availability and flammability are closely related to the vegetation phenology that directly affects wildfire pattern in time and space. In this view, the annual NDVI profiles derived from high temporal resolution satellites, like SPOT Vegetation, represent an effective tool for monitoring the coarse-scale vegetation seasonal timing. The objective of this study thus consists in quantifying the explanatory power of multitemporal NDVI profiles on the fire regime characteristics of the potential natural vegetation (PNV) types of Sardinia (Italy) over a five-year period (2000-2004). The results obtained show a good association between the NDVI temporal dynamics of the PNV of Sardinia and the corresponding fire regime characteristics, emphasizing the role of the bioclimatic timing of the vegetation in controlling the coarse-scale wildfire spatio-temporal distribution of Sardinia. By providing a sound phytogeographical framework for describing different wildfire regimes, PNV maps can thus be considered helpful cartographic documents for fire management strategies at the landscape scale.
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Title: Deliverable D3.1-12 Empirical modelling of fuel flammability and initial fuel propagation, including determination of fuel moisture threshold for fire ignition /
Language: English
Description: This report sums up the fuel flammability experiments (WP 3.1) dedicated to the determination of the thresholds of fuel moisture for fire ignition, and to the assessment of the ignition probability for different dead (i.e. litter) forest fuels in Greece, Spain, Argentina, and France. The probability of ignition has been modelled in for forest fuels through laboratory fires (Cemagref, INIA-CIFOR, MAICh, AUTH and CIEFAP), using different sources of ignitions and different environmental conditions (i.e. nul wind versus windy conditions). The sources of ignition were glowing, flaming, or sparks. The wind was controlled and set as nul or strong. Fuels were chosen as representative of the main natural (e.g. dead leaves and litter duff) and modified (e.g. pine plantations, residuals of fuel treatments) ecosystems of each country. As the main factor controlling ignition, fuel moisture content (FMC) was controlled experimentally along a wide range (generally 5 to more than 50%). The main findings are: (i) the importance of the combination of the source of ignition, the wind speed and the fuel type to assess the ignition. It has been proved that ignition can vary strongly according to this ‘triangle’, with some sources of ignition being especially efficient for some fuel types, and the complex influence of wind that may increase or decrease the ignition success; (ii) the establishment of community- or species-specific logistic models of ignition versus FMC (see Figure below); (iii) the subsequent determination of fuel moisture of extinction for most fuels studied.
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Title: D3.3-1 Review of data structures for fuel database and protocols for fuel description /
Language: English
Description: Our overall goal in this work package can be defined as follows: “the systematic collection, storage and processing of knowledge on fuels for different users, with different needs, at different scales in order to assess the fuel complex and its fire potential from combustion to the landscape level”. We intend to: (1) collect, store and process existing knowledge on: (i) fuel acquisition protocols / fuel sampling methods; (ii) resulting fuel data categories & fuel models; (iii) allocation of fuel data categories & models to different fire behaviour & fire models at different scales. (2) generate, collect, store and process new knowledge on: (i) which fuel data protocol /fuel sampling method for which purpose at which scale? (ii) user needs: which user needs what at which scale, why & when/how often? This can be achieved by developing a knowledge platform with a single, on-line point of access. This will allow fire ecologists, modellers and managers (and eventually the general public) to access information on definitions, techniques for monitoring fuels, key fuel descriptors with regards to fire behaviour and impact and existing fuel models (Table 1). The system will help to harmonize fire control planning and experimental fire procedures across Europe, where many different approaches are in use (see EUFIRELAB report: UNIT2: D-01-02-01/06 http://www.eufirelab.org/). The system should provide a ‘Clearing House’ for data and information relating to fuel. This may be partly through the collection and storage of data in a single integrated system, and partly through the collection of metadata about information that will be stored elsewhere. We also propose to develop a wiki or bliki to which the fire community can contribute.
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Title: D3.4-2 Review of fuel description methods /
Language: English
Description: The scope of this state-of-the-art is to give an overview on existing fuel description methods and their respective field protocols. Wildland fuels characteristics can be viewed as a hierarchy of levels of increasing complexity, from the cell, fuel particle to the fuel complex or stand and landscape level. The emphasis put on each hierarchy of fuel properties in this document will reflect the type of information required, which is, first of all, related to the approach taken to model fire behaviour.
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Title: D4.1-1a Spatial and temporal statistics on wildfire regimes across Europe /
Language: English
Description: An assessment was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different areas in Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Portugal. In this first stage of analysis on fire selectivity, we focused solely on fire ignitions without taking into account the corresponding burned areas. The development of appropriate statistical methods for computing the strength of association between the burned area of wildfires and land cover classes on a coarse-scale basis will be the subject of additional work. The analyzed data sets are composed of: (i) 13377 fire records in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2004, (ii) 1331 fire records in the Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri (Switzerland) during the period 1982-2005, (iii) 250 fire records in the Chalkidiki Peninsula (Macedonia, Greece) during the period 1985-1997, and (iv) 3023 fire records in the Coimbra Region (Portugal).
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Title: D3.4-1 Georeferenced database of representative sites including ecological data /
Language: English
Description: The first part of this deliverable gives an overview of the different study sites in the different countries (France, Greece, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia) involved in fuel description and mapping. The second part of the deliverable is dedicated to the description of the main vegetation types. The third part gives some examples of the plots that are described and some sampling methods, but a more detailed state-of-the-art will be given in D3.4-2. Then, in a fourth part, a list of the available data on the study sites is given. This list is detailed in an annexed table file. Study sites are also georeferenced in a GIS file.
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Title: D4.1-1b Publication describing wildfire regimes distribution in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: The deliverable is composed of four studies for different regions: (1) Analysis of the fire occurrence in the phytoclimatic regions of Sardinia; (2) Analysis of fire occurrences in the vegetation zones of Macedonia, Greece; (3) Assessing the relative fire proneness of different forest types in Portugal; (4) Selective burning of forest vegetation in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland).
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Title: 4.1-2b-39 Publication on the fire proneness of different land use classes in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: This study investigated the fire proneness of different land use classes with specific reference to a case study for the whole of Portugal, and then investigated the relationships between ignitions and land cover for three selected European study areas: (1) Sardinia, Italy; (2) Coimbra District, Portugal; (3) Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri, Switzerland.
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Title: Fire Paradox Publications /
Language: English
Description: List with all the publications produced by the project partners within the Fire Paradox project period in the following fields: Forest fuel characterization and mapping; Fire experiments: combustion, ignition and flammability; Fire behaviour modelling and simulation; Fire ecology; Fire patterns and the fire regime; Fire management and fire policies, and Fire Paradox overviews; Prescribed burning; Fire pre-suppression and suppression; Fire and the Wildland-Urban Interface; Communication on fire.
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Title: D2.1-4 Measurements of thermal degradation, ignition and combustion on representative Boreal and Mediterranean fuels /
Language: English
Description: The work presented in this report is a part of the research effort done to improve the knowledge on the thermal degradation of forest fuels. The understanding of these processses is of vital importance for the development of physical fire behaviour models . Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are thermal analysis techniques that provide information on the thermal behaviour of different fuel samples and these data may facilitate the better understanding of the mechanisms of ignitability and combustibility of forest fuels with different chemical composition. The thermal degradation of 10 forest species common in the Mediterranean region has been compared using TGA and DSC techniques. Almost all the tested species demonstrated similar pyrolitic behaviour, except Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Heat Release Rate (HRR) of a fuel is among the most important parameters for understanding combustion process, fire characteristics and propagation rates. It serves to define parameters such as flame geometry and temperature fields. In a previous work, different partners with different bench-scale equipments to measure HRR curves as well as concentrations of the different gaseous by-products of the fuel combustion put in common their expertise testing common samples. This common work and conclusions about experimental conditions to test forest fuel in bench-scale calorimeters was presented in a previous document (deliverable "D2.1-1 Methods for the experimental study combustion adapted to forest fuels and recommendations for modelling"). In this report some result obtained by a Mass Loss Calorimeter with an open-path FTIR spectroscopic system in Pinus pinea and Cistus laurifolius are presented to study the influence on the HRR, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves of parameters like the fuel moisture content or the bulk density of the tested sample. Besides, a Flame Propagation Apparatus has been used to apply oxygen consumption calorimetry for HRR and a FTIR has been used to measure gas concentrations of combustion products in smoke. Results on several pine needles (analyzing flow and species influences) and boreal moss are presented. A Flame Propagation Apparatus (FPA) joined to a FTIR gas analyzer is used to continue previous studioes on pine needles in order to better understand the different regimes for the combustion dynamics of forest fuels. Also Boreal moss has been tested as a new fuel common in Northern Europe. The aim was to investigate the possible differences in behaviour between this fuel and pine needles.
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Title: D4.4-1 Database of market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database on the market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The data has the following categories: (i) Timber; (ii) Non-wood products; (iii) Hunting; (iv) Fire extinction costs; (v) Reforestation costs. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
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Title: D4.4-2 Database on non-market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database of studies on the non-market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, and Spain.
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Title: D3.1-1 Review of existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characteristics /
Language: English
Description: Fuel moisture, that is "the moisture percentage of fuel, usually measured by oven-drying a sample and calculating the ratio of dry and moist samples" (according to the EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01 "Methods for wildland fuel description and modelling: A state of the art") is a critical parameter that affects fire ignition, fire behaviour as well as the impacts of fire. Fuel moisture content is a necessary input for all existing physical, semi-physical and empirical fire behaviour prediction models. In addition, fuel moisture content is a main component of most fire danger rating systems. From the operational point of view, fuel moisture content estimates are also required for prescribed burning (planning and use) and for suppression activities. On the other hand, the characterization of fuel beds, defined as "individual fuel particles organized in defined proportions and structural configurations" (EUFireLab Glossary, D-02-01), has also been pointed out as one of the keys for the assessment of potential fire behaviour and effects, related with both wildland fire prevention and fighting. Therefore, fire scientists as well as fire managers require specific information concerning fuel moisture content and fuel bed characteristics, as it has also been pointed out in Fire Paradox D3.3-1. In this frame, the aim of this deliverable (3.1-1) is to give an overview on existing databases for fuel moisture and fuel bed characterization. To achieve this goal, a search was conducted through Internet, EuFireLab documentation and other literature, and a questionnaire requesting information on the databases for fuel moisture or fuel bed characterization was sent to all members of the Fire Paradox Module 3. A total of five positive answers (XG-CIFAL, Cemagref, University of Thessaloniki, Forest Research Institute of Warsaw and University of Edinburgh) was received.
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Title: Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina) / Fire behaviour in grassland ecological site 'media loma', western Chaco region (Argentina)
Language: Spanish
Description: Fire behavior, considered a part of fire ecology, is together with fire prevention one of the two components of the ´fire triangle´ currently used as a basis for fire management and control. We assessed the fire behavior in a grassland located in the midland range ecological site in the Chaco region, northwestern Argentina. The site of the experiments was the ´La María´Experimental ranch, INTA Santiago del Estero Research Station, (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E). Fire was applied in two study sites in 6 plots each. Fine fuel load, botanical composition, and fine fuel bulk density were estimated by sampling. Fire behavior was assessed by estimating forward rate of spread and flame length. These data were analysed using ANOVA with study site as independent variable. Correlation among variables was assessed using the Kendall’s ô correlation coefficient. Study sites presented a different botanical composition: plots were either dominated by Trichloris pluriflora (E.) Fournier, or by Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam.) Kuntze. Plant of these species possess different proportion of stems and leaves. These facts significantly affected fine fuel load, bulk density (p > F = 0,0001 in both cases) and the forward rate of spread (p > F = 0.0001). The latter was 27,62 m*min-1 in study site 1, where the first species dominated; and 21 m*.min-1 in study site 2, where the second dominated, respectively. Average flame length was 3,5 m, but reached 6 m when volatile shrubs ignited and participated in the propagation of fire. Correlations among forward rate of spread and fuel load with bulk density was positive and significant (p < 0,0001), but was not significant in the case of flame length. Fires were of high intensity and move fast and need blacklines or other indirect measures for control.
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