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Title: D4.1-1a Spatial and temporal statistics on wildfire regimes across Europe /
Language: English
Description: An assessment was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in different areas in Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Portugal. In this first stage of analysis on fire selectivity, we focused solely on fire ignitions without taking into account the corresponding burned areas. The development of appropriate statistical methods for computing the strength of association between the burned area of wildfires and land cover classes on a coarse-scale basis will be the subject of additional work. The analyzed data sets are composed of: (i) 13377 fire records in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2004, (ii) 1331 fire records in the Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri (Switzerland) during the period 1982-2005, (iii) 250 fire records in the Chalkidiki Peninsula (Macedonia, Greece) during the period 1985-1997, and (iv) 3023 fire records in the Coimbra Region (Portugal).
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Title: D4.1-1b Publication describing wildfire regimes distribution in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: The deliverable is composed of four studies for different regions: (1) Analysis of the fire occurrence in the phytoclimatic regions of Sardinia; (2) Analysis of fire occurrences in the vegetation zones of Macedonia, Greece; (3) Assessing the relative fire proneness of different forest types in Portugal; (4) Selective burning of forest vegetation in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland).
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Title: 4.1-2b-39 Publication on the fire proneness of different land use classes in selected European study areas /
Language: English
Description: This study investigated the fire proneness of different land use classes with specific reference to a case study for the whole of Portugal, and then investigated the relationships between ignitions and land cover for three selected European study areas: (1) Sardinia, Italy; (2) Coimbra District, Portugal; (3) Cantons of Ticino, Graubuenden and Uri, Switzerland.
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Title: D4.2-2-38 Simulations to examine impact of changing management on modern fire regimes /
Language: English
Description: We have used the coupled vegetation-fire model LPX (Prentice et al., in prep.) to examine the impact of the management of fuel loads on European fire regimes under current climate conditions. We ran a series of experiments designed to mimic the reduction of different fuel classes through prescribed burning at different times in the growing season, including experiments designed to examine the impact of removing only grass cover through small prescribed fires and of more complete burns of all dead fuel. Success was measured in terms of reduction in total area burnt, which we take as a measure of the reduction in major and highly destructive fires. The most effective way of reducing the area burnt is through removal of live fuel and fine fuel at regular intervals through the spring and summer months. Although the removal of live fuel and fine fuel at the beginning of the growing season reduces the risk of major fires in some regions, paradoxically it can lead to increases in fire in more closed vegetation types because it stimulates the regrowth of grasses – which, because they dry out rapidly, are extremely effective at increasing the risk that ignitions lead to active fires and also promote rapid spreading of the fire. The removal of coarse fuel (10-hour through 100-hour fuel) produces a reduction in fire in the most arid areas, but has little impact on Mediterranean ecosystems. In temperate and boreal ecosystems, removal of coarse fuel has the paradoxical effect of increasing the amount of fire. These variable responses are determined by the impact of the presence of coarse fuels on overall drying of the available fuel load: in humid areas, removal of coarse fuel leads to more rapid drying of the fuel that accumulates later in the growing season and hence promotes fire; in arid areas, drying of all fuel components takes place quickly and, because these areas are in general fuel limited, the coarse fuel is an important component of the total fuel load and thus its removal suppresses fire. In areas where removal of fuel load leads to a decrease in burnt area, there is a shift in the timing of the fire season with peak burning occurring during winter. In areas where removal of fuel load leads to an increase in burnt area, the peak in burning occurs during the summer. These experiments show that management of fuel loads can effectively change the risk of large fires, particularly when live and fine fuel is removed throughout the growing season, and particularly where this removal increases fuel discontinuity. However, removal of fuel may lead to an increase of fire in some ecosystems. Thus, the use of prescribed burning to minimize the risks of large fires should be undertaken only after careful assessment of the amount, nature and continuity of available fuels.
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Title: 4.3-2: Report on fire culture in Argentina. Social representations of fire risk in an urban-forest interface – CIEFAP /
Language: English
Description: This investigation carried out in Esquel, Argentina, from September 2007 to July 2009, within WP 4.3 ‘Fire Anthropology’, accounts for social representations of fire risk in an urban-forest interface (U-FI) where danger and vulnerability converge. It is centered on U-FI inhabitants, who live in substandard houses right next to the municipal forest where the land is public. They were approached from a qualitative perspective, by means of semi structured and in-depth interviews as well as of participant observation. Social actors perceive fire risk; their representation associates it to the proximity of the forest and the material of their self-made houses. Experience rather than institutional information has been the trigger: people still remember a large forest fire that spread nearby in March, 2007. Everyday life fire uses, which are related to fire occurrence according to the statistics, aren’t part of the representation. People are unaware that the way they use fire could be safer (basic needs such as heating, cooking, lighting and forest waste managing are satisfied by means such uses). They base their practices on rural knowledge learnt in the steppe where they, or their parents, lived before. Thus, their knowledge leaves out some risk parameters that are at stake in the interface. The lack of information can be solved if people are involved in learning processes. The understanding of social representations provides an input that is necessary to give such processes a starting point.
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Title: D4.5-1 Written protocol on how to proceed for the private and social evaluation /
Language: English
Description: This report provides a thorough overview of the main stages of the cost-benefit analysis paying particular attention to the applicability of the method for the needs of the FIRE PARADOX project. Prior project deliverables D4.4-1, D4.4-2 and D4.4-3 give an overview of the main goods and services that might be incorporated into a cost-benefit analysis, when dealing with forest fire related issues.
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Title: D4.4-1 Database of market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database on the market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The data has the following categories: (i) Timber; (ii) Non-wood products; (iii) Hunting; (iv) Fire extinction costs; (v) Reforestation costs. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
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Title: D4.4-2 Database on non-market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database of studies on the non-market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, and Spain.
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Title: D4.2-3-36 Fire flammability of forest plant formations in Poland /
Language: English
Description: In this deliverable, a description is presented of the fire flammability of the basic forest plant formations in Poland. Two aspects of the study were distinguished. The first (general) aspect was related to analyses of the occurrence of forest fires depending on the selected factors. The other (detailed) aspect focused on the research on the fire properties of selected forest fuels; inter alia, as a result of the general analyses conducted previously. The scope of the study covered: (1) the analysis of the flammability of Poland's forests, taking into account - the CORINE 2000 classification of land uses, the site and stand conditions (forest site types, tree species, stand age), the weather conditions and seasonality of forest fire outbreaks, the impact of climate change on forest flammability; (2) the investigation into the physico-chemical properties of basic forest fuels, including - the combustion heat and the calorific value, the ignition temperature, the smoulder temperature, the ignition time, the drying capacity, the fire load and structure, fire gas emissions, the spread of forest fires.
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