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Title: BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering / BRE
Language: English
Description: The BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering is part of the Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. The research fire centre exists to: support today's fire safety with multidisciplinary research; provide education in Fire Safety Engineering and Structural Fire Engineering; deliver fire safety consultancy services to industry and other consultancies; disseminate information about advances and research in fire safety engineering through courses, symposia and publications. A variety of research projects from detailed studies of fundamental combustion processes through to the application of fire safety engineering in practice is performed. Numerical modelling work as well as experimental research is carried out.
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Title: Fire and Environmental Research Application Team (FERA) / FERA
Language: English
Description: The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) informs management of natural resources through research and development in fuels and combustion science, fire and landscape ecology, and integration of the physical and ecological sciences. Detailed information on research projects, studies, publications, products, and news are available on the website.
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Title: D2.1-1 Methods for the experimental study and recommendations for the modelling of pyrolysis and combustion of forest fuels /
Language: English
Description: The understanding of fuel dependent behaviour and other parameters affecting the combustion of forest fuels is of great importance. Heat Release Rate (HRR) of a fuel is among the most important parameters for understanding combustion process, fire characteristics and propagation rates. It serves to define parameters such as flame geometry and temperature fields. Calorimetry tests on pine needles were conducted with sample holders designed to allow the porous nature of the fuel to be studied during the tests. The goal of this test series was to help characterize the pine needle beds with some detail. The use of sample holders that allow internal fuel bed flow seems to increase reliability of the test data. CO concentration profiles proved to be a good indicator of the dynamics of the combustion process. The ability for combustion air to flow into the porous bed allowed the measured CO concentrations to provide good data on internal fuel bed dynamics. The pine needle species studied behaved differently due to different packed densities and different surface-to-volume ratios. The results indicate that the transport processes inside the bed have a significant impact on the combustion process within the porous fuel bed. Further tests are necessary with smaller opening baskets and denser fuel beds to confirm the flow effects and the fuel bed effects, respectively. An important new step to study the role of kinetics will be the use of air with different oxygen concentrations. The HRR results calculated by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry were reinforced by the use of mass loss rate calorimetry. CO concentrations in the exhaust gases proved to be a good indicator of the dynamics of the combustion process. The transition between flaming combustion and smouldering embers was reflected in the measured CO responses. Again, the ability for combustion air to flow into the porous bed allowed the measured CO concentrations to provide good data on internal fuel bed dynamics. HRR, time to ignition and time to reach peak HRR indicated a strong dependence on flow conditions within the fuel bed. The pine needle species studied behaved differently due to different packed densities and different surface-to-volume ratios. Gas concentrations were also measured by means of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. An open path FTIR technique was also developed and applied. The results are in agreement with other published results.
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Title: D2.1-4 Measurements of thermal degradation, ignition and combustion on representative Boreal and Mediterranean fuels /
Language: English
Description: The work presented in this report is a part of the research effort done to improve the knowledge on the thermal degradation of forest fuels. The understanding of these processses is of vital importance for the development of physical fire behaviour models . Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are thermal analysis techniques that provide information on the thermal behaviour of different fuel samples and these data may facilitate the better understanding of the mechanisms of ignitability and combustibility of forest fuels with different chemical composition. The thermal degradation of 10 forest species common in the Mediterranean region has been compared using TGA and DSC techniques. Almost all the tested species demonstrated similar pyrolitic behaviour, except Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Heat Release Rate (HRR) of a fuel is among the most important parameters for understanding combustion process, fire characteristics and propagation rates. It serves to define parameters such as flame geometry and temperature fields. In a previous work, different partners with different bench-scale equipments to measure HRR curves as well as concentrations of the different gaseous by-products of the fuel combustion put in common their expertise testing common samples. This common work and conclusions about experimental conditions to test forest fuel in bench-scale calorimeters was presented in a previous document (deliverable "D2.1-1 Methods for the experimental study combustion adapted to forest fuels and recommendations for modelling"). In this report some result obtained by a Mass Loss Calorimeter with an open-path FTIR spectroscopic system in Pinus pinea and Cistus laurifolius are presented to study the influence on the HRR, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves of parameters like the fuel moisture content or the bulk density of the tested sample. Besides, a Flame Propagation Apparatus has been used to apply oxygen consumption calorimetry for HRR and a FTIR has been used to measure gas concentrations of combustion products in smoke. Results on several pine needles (analyzing flow and species influences) and boreal moss are presented. A Flame Propagation Apparatus (FPA) joined to a FTIR gas analyzer is used to continue previous studioes on pine needles in order to better understand the different regimes for the combustion dynamics of forest fuels. Also Boreal moss has been tested as a new fuel common in Northern Europe. The aim was to investigate the possible differences in behaviour between this fuel and pine needles.
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