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Title: Systems for Environmental Management (SEM) / SEM
Language: English
Description: Systems for Environmental Management (SEM) is a Montana nonprofit research and educational corporation. They are specialized in issues concerning wildland fire planning, behavior, fuel, weather, and effects. Publications and software packages developed in cooperation with the Fire Sciences Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station are posted on the website. All items are freely available to download and use.
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Title: Fire Star: a decision support system for fuel management and fire hazard reduction in mediterranean wildland-urban interfaces / Fire Star
Language: EnglishFrenchPortugueseSpanish
Description: Fire star is a decision support system for fuel management and fire hazard reduction in Mediterranean wildland-urban interfaces. It allows foresters, fire-fighters and engineering offices to assess the fire risk for exposed targets (people and houses) on these interfaces, and to test the preventive efficiency of the wildland fuel reduction. The predictions of advanced models of wildland fire behaviour and effects are the bases of the content of the Fire Star system. The researchers also pursued the following scientific objectives: to improve the methods of wildland fuel description and to develop Mediterranean fuel models, to enhance the predictive ability of the wildland fire behaviour model, and to improve the knowledge of wildland fire effects on the exposed targets. The project ran from 2002 to 2005.
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Title: Stephens Lab – Research and Education in Wildland Fire Science / Stephens Lab
Language: English
Description: The mission of the Fire Science Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley is to conduct scientific research and provide academic training in the fields of wildland fire science, ecology, and resource management. Areas of research include: the current, and historical role and effects of fire; fire risk reduction; bioenergy; the ecological and economic consequences of the use of fire and fire surrogates in ecosystem restoration and management; fire policies in the United States, Australia, and Mexico; interaction of other ecosystem components (such as wildlife, soils, water, invasive organisms) and ecosystem processes with fire; and interaction of global climate change and fire regimes.
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Title: Land use change interactions with fire in Mediterranean Landscapes (LUCIFER) / LUCIFER
Language: English
Description: The project aimed to assess the interactions between fire and landscape structures in fire-prone areas in Mediterranean countries. Fire effects on the ecosystems and their influence on species changes were evaluated. Based on past landscapes and fire incidence, models of landscape change and its significance for species dynamics were developed to evaluate fire risk and other threats to the ecosystem. The project ran from 1996 to 2000.
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Title: Prescribed burning as a tool for the Mediterranean region - a management approach (FIRE TORCH) / FIRE TORCH
Language: EnglishFrench
Description: The global objective of the FIRE TORCH project was to improve the prescribed burning decision making process, creating the operational basis that will support an extensive use of the technique. The four general objectives were: to identify and analyze the opportunities for prescribed fire development; to model prescribed burning environmental effects and operational know-how; to develop a Decision Support System focusing on the different stages of a burning operation: prescription, execution and evaluation; and to contribute to the technique diffusion and practitioners training. As results a field guide for managers to appraise information necessary to conduct a prescribed burn, and a training and decision support system consisting of integrated software tools were developed. The project ran from 1998 to 2000.
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Title: FEIS : Fire Effects Information System Database / FEIS
Language: English
Description: FEIS summarizes and synthesizes research about living organisms in the United States — their biology, ecology, and relationship to fire. Other fire effects reports on fauna, flora, soil and water, air, and nonnative invasive plants are available on the site.
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Title: CSIRO Bushfire Team / Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Language: English
Description: CSIRO bushfire research is improving the understanding of fire, and improving technologies and strategies to save lives and limit damage. CSIRO has been involved in bushfire research for more than forty years. This has focused on: understanding and predicting bushfire behavior; the impact of bushfires on infrastructure; ecological responses to fire; the impact of climate change on bushfire risk; and pollutants and greenhouse gases as a result of bushfires.
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Title: Forest Fire Laboratory /
Language: English
Description: The Forest Fire Laboratory in Riverside, California, is a field research facility of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, headquartered in Albany, California. The laboratory is one of two Forest Service Labs in the nation devoted primarily to fire research. The five research units located at the Forest Fire Laboratory conduct research in the broad areas of Air Quality, Fire Science (prescribed fire, fire effects, wildland fire management etc.), and Recreation.
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Title: Prescribed burning demonstration site_Spain_Porrejon /
Language: English
Description: Provides a summary of a prescribed burn at Monte Porrejon near Jubrique, Spain: purpose of treatment, location, burn conditions, site description, prescription, execution, ignition pattern, fire behaviour, and effects. The purpose of the treatment was to analyze the long-term effects of the use of prescribed burning on tree growth in a Pine forest.
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Title: D2.5-1 Definition of cases to be assessed. Schedule and format of data exchange between partners /
Language: English
Description: This document is the Deliverable D2.5-1 of the research project “FIRE PARADOX”, which is co-funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program (2002–2006). The document is mainly related to Work Package 2.5 “Fire effects on buildings and people”. The contents of this document mainly concern the first 18 months of the project. This is the period for which detailed planning had been carried out when the project started. It is anticipated that new ideas and needs will arise during the implementation of the project; these will be incorporated into WP2.5 as the detailed planning of the project is refined according to the administration procedure of the project.
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Title: Deliverable D2.5-2 The effect of three-dimensionality on the building response to a forest fire /
Language: English
Description: In the practical applications of computational fluid dynamics in the prediction of the effects of forest fire on structures and people, the computational cost associated with the three dimensional simulations may sometimes restrain the usability of the simulations. Making the simulation two-dimensional reduces the computational cost by one or two orders of magnitude but may introduce additional errors to the results. In this work, the effects of the 2D assumption are studied by performing a series of simulations in both 3D and 2D, monitoring both convective and radioactive heat fluxes on the surfaces of the building surface, and reporting the difference between the 2D and 3D predictions of these heat fluxes. When doing the comparison between three- and two-dimensional simulations, special care must be taken to ensure that the two simulations actually represent the same fire scenario, which is the infinitely wide fire front. The performance of three-dimensional model at different boundary conditions and numerical parameters was first studied. The mirror boundaries on the sides of the fire front were found practical and valid for the reduction of computational cost. The grid sensitivity study performed in 2D showed that the independence of the grid resolution can be reached at 0.25 m. Due to the limited computational resources, only part of the final simulations were actually performed at this grid resolution. For the simulations of the crown fires, a coarser grid had to be used. From the viewpoint of radiation predictions, the 2D simulations were found to be better suited for the purpose than 3D simulations because in 2D, the smoothness of the radiation fields is much easier to achieve. At least 1000 angular directions were found necessary in 3D simulations. The validity of 2D simulations was studied by running a series of simulations in both 2D and 3D at different boundary conditions. The differences between the 2D and 3D simulations were studied by computing differences in convective and radioactive heat fluxes and by averaging them over the heat release rate ranges covered in the simulations. The conclusion was drawn based the cases where significant heat fluxes were found. The conclusion is that 2D simulations can be used for order-of-magnitude type of analysis, for which purpose they are well suited due to the small computing times. However, the differences seem to be too large for accurate predictions of the building and human response. Therefore, the critical simulations of the future analysis should be made in three dimensions.
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Title: D2.5-4-36 Fire safety analysis around targets using FDS: Final achievements - Transport of firebrands and attack on buildings /
Language: English
Description: Spotting is an important mechanism of wild land fire spread. Burning particles such as twigs and leaves lofted by the buoyant plume from forest fires can be carried by ambient winds anywhere from few meters up to even a kilometre from their source. Firebrands can then start new fires far from the original fire front. This makes it difficult to predict fire-fronts movements and can cause surprising and life threatening situations for fire fighters. Firebrands also pose a significant fire hazard at Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI). It is possible that firebrands are even the main fire hazard at WUI locations. This study addresses the effect of firebrand attack from a forest fire on an isolated building. The effect of the firebrand attack on a house is studied at Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) conditions. Penetrations of firebrands into the house under firebrand attack as well as firebrands landing distances are studied. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) [19] is used to simulate WUI fire scenarios. The results show that firebrands of all studied sizes can reach the house even across distances as large as 50 meters. The overwhelming majority of the particles reaching the house land on the roof. Few firebrands can be observed hitting the facade of the building on the side facing the fire front. Only relatively small particles were found to penetrate into the house through small openings and vents. This is attributable to the fact that smaller particles tend to follow the surrounding gas flow whereas larger particles tend to fly in parabolic trajectories and thus most probably landing on the roof or in front of the house. Compared to earlier studies on firebrand propagation, somewhat shorter propagation distances were observed. Most of the earlier studies have used some form of simple plume model or otherwise simulated a steady state flow. Results in this study suggest that the turbulence of the plume has a significant effect on the motion of firebrands. The results also suggest that for larger firebrands the propagation occurs in two distinct phases: A firebrand is lifted to high altitude by a strong updraft and is then carried further by ambient winds. A firebrand model was added to the Fire Dynamics Simulator and was used to simulate a WUI fire. While considerable uncertainties remain in modelling the fire front and the firebrand material properties, it was shown that the model can be used to investigate firebrand attacks in WUI locations.
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Title: Deliverable 2.5-5-36 Criteria for building material ignition and for burn injuries in wildland fires: final achievements /
Language: English
Description: In fire modelling, an accurate prediction of the ignition of solid fuels requires the solution of solid- and gas-phase processes. Methods that decouple the solid from the gas phase would result in significant savings in computational cost. The work described herein presents a novel methodology for this decoupling. It is based on the observation that the time to ignition can be scaled with the square of the time integral of the incident heat flux. This relationship can be readily demonstrated for the classical solutions for time to ignition which consider constant incident heat fluxes. However, some fire applications, in particular situations of wild fires approaching the wildland-urban interface, present time-varying incident heat fluxes which render the classical solutions inaccurate. A new analytical solution for obtaining the time to ignition for ramping incident heat fluxes is presented. The proposed methodology completely decouples the solid and gas phases and is accurate in the prediction of ignition times. The methodology can be applied to both the new and classical analytical solutions. It was validated with tests carried out on PMMA and PA6. The results presented here will be useful for other teams developing forest fire models, especially the team at VTT which is working on the problem of the wildland-urban interface. The second part of the report is concerned with the development of a numerical model for the assessment of the influence of moisture migration in the severity of burn injuries affecting fire fighters. It was proven that this is an important factor affecting the severity of burn injuries. This information will constitute the basis for a research on the physiology of thermal skin burns, and will also help in the development of protective clothing for fire fighters.
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Title: D4.4-1 Database of market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database on the market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The data has the following categories: (i) Timber; (ii) Non-wood products; (iii) Hunting; (iv) Fire extinction costs; (v) Reforestation costs. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
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Title: D4.4-2 Database on non-market values /
Language: English
Description: This deliverable is composed of two files: (1) a report on the the market and non-market values of forests; and (2) a database of studies on the non-market values for different goods and services as well as on some other costs related to forest fires. The report for D4.4-1 and D.4.4-2 has been combined and is the same for both deliverables. The purpose of the report is twofold: first, to give an introduction on forest goods and discuss some of the most important valuation techniques; and second, to give an example, by considering two case studies, which market and non-market goods may be relevant to be included into an evaluation of forest fire impacts and different fire management measures. The database presents data for Germany, Poland, and Spain.
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Title: D5.2-3 Development of a field survey “post fire assessment protocol” /
Language: English
Description: This document which acts as a protocol to be used in post-fire damage assessment consists of the following parts: a one-page field-survey template form, detailed description of the template, and, instructions on how to fill in the template. The protocol is based, mainly, on the works of González-Alonso (2004), Ruiz Gallardo (2004) and Key & Benson (2004) and focuses on assessing fire damage on vegetation at the landscape level. The proposed template can be used to record fire severity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and, is compatible to be used with remotely sensed satellite imagery.
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Title: D5.2-5 Literature review and synopsis of the methodologies to estimate vulnerability /
Language: English
Description: A literature review and synopsis of the methodologies to estimate vulnerability. The main sections of the report are: Vulnerability as a wildfire risk component; Vulnerability assessment (including - Population vulnerability, Structural vulnerability, Vulnerability of the environmental values, Soil vulnerability, Vulnerability index).
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