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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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Title: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Laboratorio de Sensores Teledeteccion e Imagen IR / Laboratorio de Sensores Teledeteccion e Imagen IR
Language: Spanish
Description: The laboratory of remote sensing and infrared images is a research group integrated in the Physics Departement of the University Carlos III of Madrid. The research focuses on the field of IR remote sensing and its application for the design of infrared sensors. An emphasis of the research projects is in the field of wildland fires.
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Title: Burned Areas in Russia /
Language: English
Description: These data were produced at the Sukachev Institute of Forestry in Krasnoyarsk, using AVHRR satellite data from the receiving station in Krasnoyarsk as well as from the NOAA Satellite Active Archive. Fire activity was detected during the fire season by an algorithm based on determining the probability of a fire from the AVHRR thermal channels, and was enhanced by end-of-season mapping of fire scars. The period covered is from 1996 to 2002.
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Title: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2.1) /
Language: English
Description: This data set consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 through December 2005. Users must register to access the database. The data can be accessed at - <<http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=849>>.
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Title: NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) /
Language: English
Description: FIRMS provides MODIS hotspot/fire products to natural resource managers around the world in easy to use formats. There are a number of components, including: (1) Web Fire Mapper - an interactive WebGIS system; (2) an email alert service whereby users are informed by email/text message when a hotspot/fire occurs in or near a specified area of interest; (3) data downloads for the latest hotspots/fires; (4) and regional subsets of the MODIS images. Web Fire Mapper is an internet based mapping tool that delivers locations of hotspots/fires in near real time. For selected regions and countries you can view an interactive map showing hotspots/fires for a specified time period, combined with a choice of GIS layers and satellite imagery. In addition to the near real time hotspot/fire maps, Web Fire Mapper provides yearly global animations of monthly hotspots/fires. The global animation is created from monthly subsets to provide a synopsis of the burning pattern. The global animation cycles through an entire year to show the spatial and temporal variation of the burning in different parts of the world. These images help provide an understanding of the global pattern of hotspots/fires. Each hotspot detection represents the center of a 1 km pixel flagged as containing one or more actively burning hotspots/fires within that pixel. The hotspots/fires are detected using data from the MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument, on board NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.
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Title: Авиалесоохрана / Avialesookhrana
Language: EnglishRussian
Description: AviaLesoOkhrana is a Russian state organisation concerned with the monitoring and prevention of forest fires. The site offers access to several topics related to forest fire issues in Russia: wildfire reports, wildfire maps, cloudiness composites and climatic data for registered users.
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Title: D3.1-2a Review of knowledge gaps and proposal for fuel data collection and test runs /
Language: English
Description: A review of the different aspects of fuel moisture research was conducted. The following knowledge (research) gaps can be identified: (a) The horizontal spatial variability of dead fuel moisture in relation to vegetation (e.g., stand structure, crown closure, stem density, litter and duff depth, etc.) and topographic characteristics (aspect, slope, soil depth and type, etc.) needs to be measured and modelled in the field. (b) The temporal (diurnal and seasonal) variation in dead and live fuel moisture content as related to changes in meteorological parameters (air relative humidity and temperature, insolation and cloudiness, wind speed and duration, etc) needs to be measured in the field for all the dominant Mediterranean fuel types at the species level, to the extent possible. For fire-stricken geographical regions of the Mediterranean Basin, extensive data bases of seasonal fuel moisture data per species or fuel type must be created and, subsequently, converted through statistical analysis to empirical models of fuel moisture prediction, refined for every species or fuel complex. (c) Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) sorption (adsorption and desorption) curves of dead fuels as a function of air relative humidity and temperature need to be created for the fuels of all the dominant species. (d) The fuel moisture timelag (TL) concept needs to be reassessed and measured in dead fuels from different species in relation to the fuel moisture sorption phase (adsorption or desorption), in order to account for the moisture hysteretic effects of dead fuels during the wetting or drying process. (e) A physical model that predicts canopy (crown) live fuel moisture content variations in terms of stand and tree phenological and physiological characteristics and soil water balance has to be formulated. (f) A comparison between actual measurements of dead fuel moisture with the moisture content of fuel analogues (i.e., fuel moisture sticks) is necessary in order to validate the precision of the analogues in fuel moisture assessment. (g) The relationship between dead and live fuel moisture and drought (prolonged period of high temperatures and low air and soil humidity) needs to be further investigated, and in particular, the response of shrub and tree species moisture content to drought. The use of the newly formed SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) drought index might be useful in the correlation with fuel moisture, in addition to the traditionally used KBDI and Palmer indexes. In view of the expected global warming and climatic change, this research aspect of fuel moisture could be very significant in the future. (h) The moisture of extinction (ME) of dead and live fuels must be measured in the field (in situ) with a long series of ignition experiments in different fuel types and, subsequently, correlated with the existing fuel moisture content and meteorological parameters in the field, into regression and probabilistic models. ME values of the most significant Mediterranean fuel types must be measured in the laboratory and in the field. (i) The condensation (water vapour that originates from the atmosphere in the form of dew on the surface of dead fuels) and the latent heat of vaporisation of free water from the fuel particle surface are two terms that are currently neglected and must be taken into account in future physical models of dead fuel moisture content. (j) The optimal temporal (time) step for monitoring vegetation moisture content (greenness) via satellite imagery needs to be determined in dead and live Mediterranean fuel complexes.
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Title: D3.1-4 Fire occurrence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: First results /
Language: English
Description: Sardinia is one of the most fire-prone regions of Italy. The high incidence of fires in Sardinia constitutes a problem in terms of damages and resources management, consequently, for provisional and operational planning, it’s very important to know the wildfire regime characteristics and their linkage with the determinant factors. The study of the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wildfires and the remote-sensed symphenological variables highlighted the role of temporal NDVI signal as a reliable tool for analyzing ecological processes, going beyond the biophysical significance of single-date NDVI values as proxies to photsyntetic activity. The results obtained show that the simultaneous ordering of symphenological variables and fire regime characteristics, based on the spatial distribution of PNV, is consistent with a climatic control that acts on both phenomena. In an evolving landscape, knowing that the wildfires regime is strictly determined by potential natural vegetation phenology can be helpful for monitoring and predicting fires behaviour under changing climatic scenario. Finally, by providing a phytogeographical framework for characterizing fires, the PNV map can be considered a valuable tool for applying research results to fire management policies, since it takes properly into account the underlying determinant factors.
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Title: D3.1-10 Fire occurence: relationships with fuel moisture content and remotely-sensed plant phenology data: final results (merged with D3.1-9) /
Language: English
Description: Fire is a basic ecological factor that contributes to determine vegetation diversity and dynamics in time and space. Fuel characteristics play an essential role in fire ignition and propagation; at the landscape scale fuel availability and flammability are closely related to the vegetation phenology that directly affects wildfire pattern in time and space. In this view, the annual NDVI profiles derived from high temporal resolution satellites, like SPOT Vegetation, represent an effective tool for monitoring the coarse-scale vegetation seasonal timing. The objective of this study thus consists in quantifying the explanatory power of multitemporal NDVI profiles on the fire regime characteristics of the potential natural vegetation (PNV) types of Sardinia (Italy) over a five-year period (2000-2004). The results obtained show a good association between the NDVI temporal dynamics of the PNV of Sardinia and the corresponding fire regime characteristics, emphasizing the role of the bioclimatic timing of the vegetation in controlling the coarse-scale wildfire spatio-temporal distribution of Sardinia. By providing a sound phytogeographical framework for describing different wildfire regimes, PNV maps can thus be considered helpful cartographic documents for fire management strategies at the landscape scale.
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Title: D3.4-2 Review of fuel description methods /
Language: English
Description: The scope of this state-of-the-art is to give an overview on existing fuel description methods and their respective field protocols. Wildland fuels characteristics can be viewed as a hierarchy of levels of increasing complexity, from the cell, fuel particle to the fuel complex or stand and landscape level. The emphasis put on each hierarchy of fuel properties in this document will reflect the type of information required, which is, first of all, related to the approach taken to model fire behaviour.
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Title: D3.4-3 Fuel description: first results /
Language: English
Description: Knowledge about fuel is a fundamental part of wildland fire management, where fuel description and modelling contributes with information about potential fire behaviour. Fuel mapping, the product of spatially explicit information about fuels, is an indispensable but complex process in strategic fire management and planning, which requires skills in many different disciplines such as fire behaviour and ecology, and remote sensing and landscape ecology. The ultimate objective within work package 3.4 of the Fire Paradox project is to produce a guide for fire managers and scientists to assess and characterise fuel types in the Mediterranean region based on multidisciplinary work. An essential part will be to link potential fire behaviour to fuel characteristics through the definition of fuel types. By combining different remote sensing approaches, the expected outcome is that these fuel types can be extensively mapped for the Mediterranean region. Involved project partners have carried out studies from the scale of fuel particles to that of entire forest landscapes. Preliminary results of physical and chemical characteristics of leafy plant organs showed great variability among species, while these differences among species were much less for twigs of different size classes. At the level of individuals, bulk density of the finest fuel particles (leaves and twigs of 0-2 mm diameter) were greater at the outmost parts of shrubs compared to the interior or lower parts of the shrub. It was further shown that the absolute and relative amount of fuel particles size classes depended on a number of factors such as shrub height, and degree of disturbance. Studies using different remote sensing techniques demonstrate their strengths and weaknesses, while pointing out possible combinations using different approaches leading to higher classification accuracy as well as increased level of fuel type classification. Further work is needed in characterising fuel characteristics at the level of fuel particles, plant individuals and plant communities, before physics-based fire behaviour modelling of common Mediterranean fuel complexes can be carried out in order to deduce dominant fuel types to be mapped using remote sensing approaches. We further point out the importance of linking fuel type classification to other types of vegetation classification in order to facilitate exchange between multiple stakeholders in natural resource management and sustained development of wildland areas.
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Title: IR 3.4-6-40 Georeferenced database of representative sites including ecological data for North West of Pagatonia /
Language: English
Description: Fire has been a disturbance that has affected the Patagonian Forests along the Argentinean and Chilean sides of the Andean cordillera since immemorial times. Although with some interruptions due to suppression policies enforced in the 30´s by the Argentine National Parks Administration, either natural or man caused fires continue today to be one of the major driving forces that shapes Patagonian vegetation. The advancing of wildland urban interface areas towards the shrubland and forest areas and also changes in productive and recreational activities, have significantly increased fire risk. In order to deal with the fire problem, fire management agencies need accessible and accurate information, particularly about the type of vegetation (fuel types) and fire behavior that may affect the areas under their jurisdiction. The Fire Danger Rating Systems (FRDS) can represent the technical support for operative personnel to take decisions for controlling fires in progress. As a first step, in the year 2000, the National Plan for Fire Management (PNMF) started the adaptation, for Argentina, of the Fire Weather Index Subsystem taken from the Canadian Fire Danger Rating System. However, in order to provide essential information to feed this FDRS, fuel types and models should be previously defined. Once the models are defined, the organizations will be able to adapt the Fire Behavior Prediction System and, by doing so, complement its use. In this work, a methodology to describe and classify fuel types from remote sensing data is proposed for three broad vegetation communities and WUI representatives of large areas of Northwestern Patagonia. Exhaustive field samplings were carried out in order to obtain actual parameters of dead fuel load, which remained unknown up to the present, as well as qualitative description of spatial arrangement of surface and aboveground fuels. A geo-referenced database was then conformed for forest, shrublands and WUI areas. The forest types correspond to Austrocedrus chilensis (Don) Florin et Boutleje “ciprés de la cordillera” and Nothofagus antarctica (Forst.f.) Oerst. “ñire”, the main species of the East side of the Andean forests. For shrublands of the Occidental District in the Patagonian Phytogeographic Province, the representative types are composed of the species Colliguaja intengerrima Gillies et Hook “duraznillo”, Schinus marchandii Barkley “molle” and Mullinum spinosum (Cav) Pers. “neneo”, while WUI represent a mosaic of different forest, shrubland and grassland species intermixed, in which different types and degree of disturbances occur. In future studies, fire behavior parameters will be assessed in fire tests or in fires in progress, fuel types modeled, and the methodology for determining fuel types from woody debris inproved and adapted, particularly for Nothofagus antarctica (ñire).
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Title: D3.4-1 Georeferenced database of representative sites including ecological data /
Language: English
Description: The first part of this deliverable gives an overview of the different study sites in the different countries (France, Greece, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia) involved in fuel description and mapping. The second part of the deliverable is dedicated to the description of the main vegetation types. The third part gives some examples of the plots that are described and some sampling methods, but a more detailed state-of-the-art will be given in D3.4-2. Then, in a fourth part, a list of the available data on the study sites is given. This list is detailed in an annexed table file. Study sites are also georeferenced in a GIS file.
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